Evaluation of the ecological niche model approach in spatial conservation prioritization


Autoři: Fumiko Ishihama aff001;  Akio Takenaka aff001;  Hiroyuki Yokomizo aff001;  Taku Kadoya aff001
Působiště autorů: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226971

Souhrn

Ecological niche models (ENMs) are widely used in spatial prioritization for biodiversity conservation (e.g. selecting conservation areas). However, it is unclear whether ENMs are always beneficial for such purposes. We quantified the benefit of using ENMs in conservation prioritization, comparing the numbers of species covered by conservation areas selected on the basis of probabilities estimated by ENMs (ENM approach) and those selected on the basis of raw observation data (raw-data approach), while controlling survey range, survey bias, and target size of conservation area. We evaluated three ENM algorithms (GLM, GAM, and random forests). We used virtual community data generated by simulation for the evaluation. ENM approach was effective when survey bias is strong, survey range is narrow, and target size of conservation area is moderate. The percentage of cases in which the ENM approach outperformed the raw-data approach ranged from 0.0 to 33% (GLM), 31% (GAM), and 75% (random forests) depending on conditions. The number of rare species (< 20 presence records) included in the conservation area based on the ENM approach was less than, or the same as, that of the raw-data approach. The unexpectedly limited cases in which the ENM approach was effective in the present research may depend on the conservation target we used (to cover as many species as possible in conservation area). Our results highlight urgent need for evaluating ENM’s effectiveness under other conservation targets for wise use of ENM in conservation prioritization.

Klíčová slova:

Algorithms – Biodiversity – Community structure – Conservation science – Distribution curves – Ecological niches – Machine learning algorithms – Species diversity


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2019 Číslo 12