Non-structural carbohydrates in maize with different nitrogen tolerance are affected by nitrogen addition

Autoři: Yawei Wu aff001;  Bo Zhao aff001;  Qiang Li aff002;  Fanlei Kong aff001;  Lunjing Du aff001;  Fang Zhou aff001;  Haichun Shi aff001;  Yongpei Ke aff001;  Qinlin Liu aff001;  Dongju Feng aff001;  Jichao Yuan aff001
Působiště autorů: Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Ministry of Agriculture/College of Agriculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, P.R. China aff001;  Chongqing Key Laboratory of Economic Plant Biotechnology/Collaborative Innovation Center of Special Plant Industry in Chongqing/Institute of Special Plants, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, P.R. China aff002;  Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, P.R. China aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are an important energy source for plant growth and metabolism. Analysis of NSC changes can provide important clues to reveal the adaptation mechanisms of plants to a specific environment. Although considerable differences have been reported in NSCs in response to nitrogen (N) application among crop species and cultivars, previous studies have mostly focused on the differences in leaves and stems. However, the effects of N on the characteristics of accumulation and translocation of NSC in maize with different levels of N tolerance remain unclear. To determine differences in the N levels, two cultivars (N-efficient ZH311 and N-inefficient XY508) were grown in field pots (Experiment I) and as hydroponic cultures (Experiment II) and were supplemented with different concentrations of N fertilizer. In both experiments, low-N stress significantly increased the accumulation of NSCs in maize vegetative organs and increased the translocation rate of NSCs in the stems and their apparent contribution to yield, thereby reducing the yield loss caused by low-N stress. N application had a greater effect on starch content in the vegetative organs of ZH311, but had less effect on soluble sugar (SS) and NSC content in the whole plant and starch content in the ears. ZH311 could convert more starch into SS under low N conditions to adapt to low N environments than XY508, while ensuring that grain yield and starch quantity were not affected. This is evidently an important physiological mechanism involved in this cultivar’s tolerance to low N conditions.

Klíčová slova:

Carbohydrates – Fertilizers – Leaves – Maize – Photosynthesis – Seedlings – Starches – Sucrose


1. Bouguyon E, Gojon A, Nacry P. Nitrate sensing and signaling in plants. Cell Dev. Biol. 2012;23(6):648–654.

2. Kong X. China must protect high-quality arable land. Nature 2014;506:7. doi: 10.1038/506007a 24499883

3. Peng X, Yang Y, Yu C, Chen L, Zhang M, Liu Z, et al. Crop management for increasing rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency in Northeast China. Agron. J. 2015;107(5):1682–1690.

4. Liu X, Zhang Y, Han W, Tang A, Shen J, Cui Z, et al. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China. Nature 2013;494(7438):459–462. doi: 10.1038/nature11917 23426264

5. Zhang F, Chen X, Vitousek P. An experiment for the world. Nature 2013;497:33–35. doi: 10.1038/497033a 23636381

6. Wei X. Effects of nitrogen application and inoculating ecotomycorrhizal fungi on carbons sequestration of Pinus Tabulaeformis. Yangling: Northwest University of Agriculture and Forestry Science and Technology; 2013. Chinese.

7. Wang Q, Chen Y. (2018). Advantages Analysis of Corn Planting in China. J Agric Sci Tech China. 20, 1–9. Chinese.

8. Zhu ZL, Chen DL. Nitrogen fertilizer use in China–Contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies. N Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 2002;63(2):117–127.

9. Zhang Y, Li C, Wang Y, Hu Y, Christie P, Zhang J, et al. Maize yield and soil fertility with combined use of compost and inorganic fertilizers on a calcareous soil on the North China Plain. Soil Tillage Res. 2016;155:85–94.

10. Caviglia OP, Melchiori RJM, Sadras VO. Nitrogen utilization efficiency in maize as affected by hybrid and N rate in late-sown crops. Field Crop. Res. 2014;168:27–37.

11. Chen G, Chen Y, Zhao G, Cheng W, Guo S. Do high nitrogen use efficiency rice cultivars reduce nitrogen losses from paddy fields? Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.03.003

12. Jung Y, Burd A. Seasonal changes in above- and below-ground non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in Spartina alterniflora in a marsh in Georgia, USA. Aquat. Bot. 2017;140:13–22.

13. Liu Z, Cheng R, Xiao W, Guo Q, Wang Y, Wang N, et al. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, non-structural carbohydrate content and growth responses of Distylium chinense during complete submergence and subaerial re-emergence. Aquat. Bot. 2015;124:70–77.

14. Ainsworth Elizabeth A, Bushm Daniel R. Carbohydrate export from the leaf: A highly regulated process and target to enhance photosynthesis and productivity. Plant Physiol. 2011;155(1):64–69. doi: 10.1104/pp.110.167684 20971857

15. Zheng Y, Ding Y, Liu Z, Wang S. Effects of panicle nitrogen fertilization on non-Structural carbohydrate and grain filling in Indica rice. Agric. Sci. China. 2010;9(11):1630–1640. Chinese.

16. Liu J, Wu N, Wang H, Sun J, Peng B, Jiang P, et al. Nitrogen addition affects chemical compositions of plant tissues, litter and soil organic matter. Ecology 2016;97(7):1796–1806. doi: 10.1890/15-1683.1 27859176

17. Pan J. Effect of nitrogen on characteristics of accumulation and translocation of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems and their genetic basis. Wuhan: Huazhong Agricultural University; 2010. Chinese.

18. Peng Y, Li C, Fritschi FB. Diurnal dynamics of maize leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate concentrations in response to differential N availability. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2014;99:18–27.

19. Ning P, Yang L, Li C, Fritschi FB. Post-silking carbon partitioning under nitrogen deficiency revealed sink limitation of grain yield in maize. J.Exp. Bot. 2018;69(7):1707–1719. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erx496 29361032

20. Xiong D, Yu T, Ling X, Fahad S, Peng S, Li Y, et al. Sufficient leaf transpiration and nonstructural carbohydrates are beneficial for high-temperature tolerance in three rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars and two nitrogen treatments. Funct. Plant Biol. 2015;42(4):347–356.

21. Li Q, Wu Y, Chen W, Jin R, Kong F, Ke Y, et al. Cultivar differences in root nitrogen uptake ability of maize hybrids. Front. Plant Sci. 2017;8:1–12. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00001

22. Mu X. The physiological mechanism of efficient nitrogen use in maize leaves, Beijing: China Agricultural University. 2017. Chinese.

23. De Bei R, Fuentes S, Sullivan W, Edwards EJ, Tyerman S, Cozzolino D. Rapid measurement of total non-structural carbohydrate concentration in grapevine trunk and leaf tissues using near infrared spectroscopy. Comput. Electron. Agr. 2017;136:176–183.

24. Li G, Cui K. Effects of nitrogen on sucrose phosphate synthase in rice leaves and its relationship with assimilate accumulation and yield. Plant Physio. J. 2018;54(7):1195–1204. Chinese.

25. Pan J, Li G, Cui K. Re-partitioning of non-structural carbohydrates in rice stems and their roles in yield stability and stress tolerance. Chin. J. Rice Sci. 2014;28(4):335–342. Chinese.

26. Li G. Mechanisms of accumulation and translocation of stem non-structural carbohydrates and phloem unloading of caryopsis in rice (Oryza Sativa L.). Wuhan: Huazhong Agricultural University; 2018. Chinese.

27. ZHANG C. The mechanism and regulation underlying the inhibition on the assimilates transport and metabolism in phloem of rice caused by heat stress. Hangzhou: China National Rice Research Institute. 2018. Chinese.

28. Xing F, Liu X, Wang L, Selvaraj JN, Jin N, Wang Y, et al. Distribution and variation of fungi and major mycotoxins in pre- and post-nature drying maize in North China Plain. Food Control 2017;80:244–251.

29. Yang Q, Zhang W, Li R, Xu M, Wang S. Different responses of non-structural carbohydrates in above-ground tissues/organs and root to extreme drought and re-watering in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) saplings. Trees 2016;30(5):1863–1871.

30. Pan W, Camberato J, Moll R, Kamprath E, Jackson W. Altering source-sink relationships in prolific maize hybrids—consequence for nitrogen uptake and remobolization. Crop Sci. 1995;35(03):836–845.

31. Wang Y. Wheat non-structural carbohydrates cumulative distribution and photosynthetic physiological response to water stress. Lanzhou: Gansu Agricultural University; 2014. Chinese.

32. Doehlert DC. Substrate inhibition of maize endosperm sucrose synthase by fructose and its interaction with glucose inhibition. Plant Sci. 1987;52(3):153–157.

33. Good AG, Shrawat AK, Muench DG. Can less yield more? Is reducing nutrient input into the environment compatible with maintaining crop production? Trends Plant Sci. 2004;9(12):597–605. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2004.10.008 15564127

34. Liu Q. Studies on the varietal differences of photosynthetic characteristics and its underlying mechanisms in rice plants. Wuhan: Huazhong Agricultural University; 2015. Chinese.

35. Wang K, Lei H, Xia Y, Yu G. Responses of non-structural carbohydrates of poplar seedlings to increased precipitation and nitrogen addition. Chin J Appl Ecol. 2017;28(2):399–407. Chinese.

36. Mollo L, Martins MCM, Oliveira VF, Nievola CC, L. Figueiredo-Ribeiro RDC. Effects of low temperature on growth and non-structural carbohydrates of the imperial bromeliad Alcantarea imperialis cultured in vitro. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult. 2011;107(1):141–149.

37. Ai Z, Xue S, Wang G, Liu G. Responses of non-structural carbohydrates and C:N:P stoichiometry of Bothriochloa ischaemum to nitrogen addition on the Loess Plateau, China. J. Plant Growth Regul. 2017;36(3):714–722.

38. Osaki M. Carbon-nitrogen interaction model in field crop production[J]. Plant and Soil. 1993, 155/156: 203–206.

39. Xiong B. Effects of nitrogen on leaf senescence of maize (Zea mays L.) and carbon/nitrogen balance under drought stress: Chinese Academy of Sciences; 2016. Chinese.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden