The Intersection of Human Disturbance and Diel Activity, with Potential Consequences on Trophic Interactions

Autoři: Michael A. Patten aff001;  Jutta C. Burger aff003;  Milan Mitrovich aff004
Působiště autorů: Oklahoma Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, United States of America aff001;  Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, United States of America aff002;  Irvine Ranch Conservancy, Irvine, California, United States of America aff003;  Natural Communities Coalition, Irvine, California, United States of America aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


Direct effects of human disturbance on animal populations are well documented across habitats, biomes, and species, but indirect effects of diel have received less attention. An emerging field in applied ecology involves behavioral avoidance of or attraction to humans and their trappings. We posit trophic consequences, in terms of relative risk, for four species of mammals, each of which strongly avoids human activity, in urban reserves of coastal southern California. Two species, one predator and one prey, avoid human activity via a temporal shift to become “more nocturnal”—the species’ activity is centered near dawn on days without human activity but nearer to midnight on days with human activity. Diel shifts have brought the species into greater overlap, respectively, with a key prey and a key predator, overlap that may increase encounter rate and thus increase relative risk of predation, with potential consequences for trophic dynamics and cascades: increased risk of predation may depress prey population, either directly (e.g., mortality) or indirectly (e.g., “landscape of fear”). Human use of reserves, especially in high population density regions, needs to be reconsidered either to reduce access or to restrict access entirely to areas that may provide refuge to both predators and prey.

Klíčová slova:

Deer – Mammals – Mules – Predation – Predator-prey dynamics – Pumas – Wildlife – Coyotes


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2019 Číslo 12
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