A low-loss and compact single-layer butler matrix for a 5G base station antenna

Autoři: Intan Izafina Idrus aff001;  Tarik Abdul Latef aff001;  Narendra Kumar Aridas aff001;  Mohamad Sofian Abu Talip aff001;  Yoshihide Yamada aff002;  Tharek Abd Rahman aff003;  Ismahayati Adam aff004;  Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia aff001;  Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia aff002;  Wireless Communication Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bharu, Johor, Malaysia aff003;  School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia aff004;  School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226499


Researchers are increasingly showing interest in the application of a Butler matrix for fifth-generation (5G) base station antennas. However, the design of the Butler matrix is challenging at millimeter wave because of the very small wavelength. The literature has reported issues of high insertion losses and incorrect output phases at the output ports of the Butler matrix, which affects the radiation characteristics. To overcome these issues, the circuit elements of the Butler matrix such as the crossover, the quadrature hybrid and the phase shifter must be designed using highly accurate dimensions. This paper presents a low-loss and compact single-layer 8 × 8 Butler matrix operating at 28 GHz. The optimum design of each circuit element is also demonstrated in detail. The designed Butler matrix was fabricated to validate the simulated results. The measured results showed return losses of less than −10 dB at 28 GHz. The proposed Butler matrix achieved a low insertion loss and a low phase error of ± 2 dB and ± 10°, respectively. In sum, this work obtained a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Klíčová slova:

Antennas – Electromagnetics – Employment – Optical lenses – Research design – Software design – Telecommunications – Computerized simulations


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2019 Číslo 12
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