1. Etienne E. Exploring workplace bullying in nursing. Workplace Health Saf. 2014;62:6–11. doi: 10.1177/216507991406200102 24571049
2. Jones AL. Experience of protagonists in workplace bullying: An integrated literature review. Int J Nurs Clin Pract. 2017;4:246. doi: 10.15344/2394-4978/2017/246
3. Hutchinson M, Jackson D, Wilkes L, Vickers MH. A new model of bullying in the nursing workplace: Organizational characteristics as critical antecedents. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2008;31:E60–71. doi: 10.1097/01.ANS.0000319572.37373.0c 18497582
4. Johnson SL. International perspectives on workplace bullying among nurses: A review. Int Nurs Rev. 2009;56:34–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2008.00679.x 19239514
5. Randle J. Bullying in the nursing profession. J Adv Nurs. 2003;43:395–401. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02728.x 12887358
6. Castronovo MA, Pullizzi A, Evans S. Nurse bullying: A review and a proposed solution. Nurs Outlook. 2016;64:208–14. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2015.11.008 26732552
7. Sauer PA, McCoy TP. Nurse bullying: impact on nurses’ health. West J Nurs Res. 2017;39:1533–46. doi: 10.1177/0193945916681278 27920345
8. Hamblin LE, Essenmacher L, Ager J, Upfal M, Luborsky M, Russell J, et al. Worker-to-worker violence in hospitals: Perpetrator characteristics and common dyads. Workplace Health Saf. 2016;64:51–6. doi: 10.1177/2165079915608856 26450899
9. Laschinger HK, Grau AL, Finegan J, Wilk P. New graduate nurses’ experiences of bullying and burnout in hospital settings. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66:2732–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05420.x 20722806
10. Tee S, Özçetin YSÜ, Russell-Westhead M. Workplace violence experienced by nursing students: A UK survey. Nurse Educ Today. 2016;41:30–5. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2016.03.014 27138479
11. Glasø L, Notelaers G. Workplace bullying, emotions, and outcomes. Violence Vict. 2012;27:360–77. doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.27.3.360 22852437
12. Lutgen‐Sandvik P, Tracy SJ, Alberts JK. Burned by bullying in the American workplace: Prevalence, perception, degree and impact. J Manag Stud. 2007;44:837–62. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00715.x
13. Cardoso M, Fornés-Vives J, Gili M. Implications of psychological harassment on witnesses: An observational study in nursing staff. Enfermería Glob. 2016;15:313–23.
14. Salmivalli C. Participant roles in bullying: How can peer bystanders be utilized in interventions? Theory Pract. 2014;53(4):286–92. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2014.947222
15. Laschinger HKS, Grau AL. The influence of personal dispositional factors and organizational resources on workplace violence, burnout, and health outcomes in new graduate nurses: A cross‐sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012;49:282–91. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.09.004 21978860
16. Laschinger HKS. Impact of workplace mistreatment on patient safety risk and nurse-assessed patient outcomes. J Nurs Admin. 2014;44:284–90. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000068 24759201
17. MacIntosh J, Wuest J, Gray MM, Cronkhite M. Workplace bullying in health care affects the meaning of work. Qual Health Res. 2010;20:1128–41. doi: 10.1177/1049732310369804 20463362
18. Stamm BH. The concise ProQoL manual. 2nd ed. Pocatello, ID: ProQOL.org; 2010.
19. Burnett HJ Jr, Wahl K. The compassion fatigue and resilience connection: A survey of resilience, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among trauma responders. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2015;17(1):318–26. doi: 10.4172/1522-4821.1000165
20. Barr P. Compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in neonatal intensive care unit nurses: Relationships with work stress and perceived social support. Traumatology. 2017;23:214. doi: 10.1037/trm0000115
21. Lawler EE. Satisfaction and behavior. In: Hackman HR, Lawler EE, Porter LW, editors, Perspectives on behavior in organizations. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1983. pp. 78–107.
22. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav Res Methods. 2007;39:175–91. doi: 10.3758/bf03193146 17695343
23. Einarsen S, Hoel H, Notelaers G. Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of negative acts questionnaire-revised. Work Stress. 2009:23;24–44. doi: 10.1080/02678370902815673
24. Nam W, Kim JW, Kim YK, Koo JW, Park CY. The reliability and validity of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) for nurses for the assessment of workplace bullying. Korean J Occup Environ Med. 2010;22:129–39. doi: 10.35371/kjoem.2010.22.2.129
25. Maslach C, Jackson SE. The measurement of experienced burnout. J Organ Behav. 1981;2:99–113.
26. Kang JH, Kim CW. Evaluating applicability of Maslach burnout inventory among university hospitals nurses. Korean J Adult Nurs. 2012;24:31–7. doi: 10.7475/kjan.2012.24.1.31
27. Poghosyan L, Aiken LH, Sloane DM. Factor structure of the Maslach burnout inventory: An analysis of data from large scale cross-sectional surveys of nurses from eight countries. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46:894–902. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.03.004 19362309
28. Bae Y, Lee T. Relationship of experience of violence and professional quality of life for hospital nurses. J Korean Acad Nurs Adm. 2015;21:489–500. doi: 10.11111/jkana.2015.21.5.489
29. Park HS. Relationship between perceived nursing care role orientation, job characteristics, and turnover among nurses. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul; 2002.
30. Yeun YR. A research of workplace bullying and burnout on turnover intention in hospital nurses. J Korea Acad Ind Coop Soc. 2015;16:8343–9. doi: 10.5762/KAIS.2015.16.12.8343
31. Abe K, Henly SJ. Bullying (ijime) among Japanese hospital nurses: Modeling responses to the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire. Nurs Res. 2010;59:110–8. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181d1a709 20216013
32. Laschinger HKS, Wong CA, Grau AL. The influence of authentic leadership on newly graduated nurses’ experiences of workplace bullying, burnout and retention outcomes: A cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012;49:1266–76. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.05.012 22727121
33. Fang L, Huang SH, Fang SH. Workplace bullying among nurses in South Taiwan. J Clin Nurs. 2016;25:2450–6. doi: 10.1111/jocn.13260 27229942
34. Hampton D, Tharp‐Barrie K, Kay Rayens M. Experience of nursing leaders with workplace bullying and how to best cope. J Nurs Manag. 2016;27:517–26. doi: 10.1111/jonm.12706 30136408
35. Yun S, Kang J. Factors affecting workplace bullying in Korean hospital nurses. Korean J Adult Nurs. 2014;26:553–62. doi: 10.7475/kjan.2014.26.5.553
36. Ministry of Health & Welfare. OECD Health data 2015. 2015 [cited 2019 Apr 2]. In: [Internet]. Sejong: Ministry of Health & Welfare. Available from: http://www.mohw.go.kr/front_new/jb/sjb030301vw.jsp?PAR_MENU_ID=03&MENU_ID=032901&CONT_SEQ=337336&page=1.
37. Johnson SL, Rea RE. Workplace bullying: Concerns for nurse leaders. J Nurs Adm. 2009;39:84–90. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e318195a5fc 19190425
38. Vogelpohl DA, Rice SK, Edwards ME, Bork CE. New graduate nurses’ perception of the workplace: Have they experienced bullying? J Prof Nurs. 2009;29:414–22. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2012.10.008 24267937
39. Johnson SL, Boutain DM, Tsai JHC, Beaton R, de Castro AB. An exploration of managers’ discourses of workplace bullying. Nurs Forum. 2015;50(4):265–73. doi: 10.1111/nuf.12116 25597260
40. Lee YJ. The convergence approach based on grounded theory methodology on nurse’s experience of workplace bullying. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society. 2018;9(12):429–40. https://doi.org/10.15207/JKCS.2018.9.12.429
41. Chipps EM, McRury M. The development of an educational intervention to address workplace bullying: A pilot study. J Nurses Staff Dev. 2012;28:94–8. doi: 10.1097/NND.0b013e31825514bb 22617778
42. Heponiemi T, Sinervo K, Kuokkanen L, Perala M, Laaksonen EM. The association between violence and turnover intentions among Finnish registered nurses. Nurs Evid. 2009;7:11–9.
43. Lee Y, Lee M, Bernstein K. Effect of workplace bullying and job stress on turnover intention in hospital nurses. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2013;22:77–87. doi: 10.12934/jkpmhn.2013.22.2.77
44. Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Guidelines for preventing workplace violence for healthcare and social service workers. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration; 1996.
45. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Preventing violence and harassment in the workplace. 2003 [cited 2019 Apr 9]. In: Eurofound [Internet]. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Available from: http://www.eurofound.eu.int/publications/files/EF02109 EN.pdf
46. Wiskow C. Guidelines on workplace violence in the health sector. 2003 [cited 2019 March 28] [Internet]. Geneva: ILO, ICN, WHO, PSI. Available from:http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/interpersonal/en/WV_ComparisonGuidelines.pdf
47. Forster AJ, Petty TM, Schleiger C, Walters CH. Know workplace violence: Developing programs for managing the risk of aggression in the health care setting. MJA. 2005;183:357–61. doi: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.2005.tb07083.x 16201953
48. Jacobson J. Violence and nursing: Nurses worldwide are speaking out against what they say are inadequate workplace protections. AJN. 2007;107(2):25–6. doi: 10.1097/00000446-200702000-00010 17251764
49. American Nurses Association. Violence, incivility, & bullying. 2015 [cited 2019 Mar 8]. In: ANA Enterprise [Internet]. Silver Spring, MA: American Nurses Association. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/WorkplaceSafety/Healthy-Nurse/bullyingworkplaceviolence/Incivility-Bullying-and-Workplace-Violence.html.
50. Shin K. Legal definition and requirement of work-related harassment. Journal of Labour Law. 2019;69:217–51.
51. Leiter MP, Maslach C. Research in occupational stress and well-being: Areas of worklife. In: Perrewe PL, Ganster DC, editors. A structured approach to organizational predictors of job burnout. Oxford: Elsevier; 2004. pp. 91–134.