1. Liu WD, Michael D, Gao BY. Discursive construction of the Belt and Road Initiative: From neoliberal-al to inclusive globalization. Prog Geogr. 2017; 36(11): 1321–1331.
2. Yan GW. A Textual Study of Traffic Maps in Tang Dynasty.1st ed. Shang Hai: Shanghai Classics Publishing House; 2007. pp. 421–585.
3. Su HY, Yong JC. The comprehensive conclusion obtained from the traffic investigation of the Silk Road in Qinghai. Silk Route. 2009; (6): 39–42.
4. Liu XR. The Silk Road in World History.1st ed. New York: Oxford university press; 2010. pp. 30–65.
5. Valerie H.The Silk Road: A New History. 1st ed.New York: Oxford university press; 2012. pp. 46–57.
6. Zhou J. TheSilk Road Traffic Routes (China section) Historical Geography Study. 1st ed.Nan Jing: Jiangsu People’s Press; 2012. pp. 7–280.
7. Yao T. D, Chen FH, Cui P, Ma YM, Xu BQ, Zhu LP, et al. From the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the Third and Pan-third poles. Chin Sci Bull. 2017; 32(09): 924–931.
8. Chen FH, An CB, Dong GH, Zhang DJ. Human Activities, Environmental Changes, and Rise and Decline of Silk Road Civilization in Pan-Third Pole Region. Chin Sci Bull.2017; 32(9): 967–975.
9. Han JY. Sino-Western exchange culture South Road in 5,000 years ago. Soc Sci Front. 2012; (06): 102–106.
10. Lv HL. Understanding the Neolithic Age in Western Tibet from the perspective of crossing the Himalayas. Archaeology. 2014;12:77–89.
11. Zhang DJ, Dong GH, Wang H, Ren XY, Ha BB, Qiang MR, et al. History and possible mechanisms of prehistoric human migration to the Tibetan Plateau. Sci China Earth Sci. 2016;59: 1765–1778.
12. Liu XY, Lister DL, Zhao ZJ, Staff RA, Jones PJ, Zhou LP, et al. The virtues of small grain size: Potential pathways to a distinguishing feature of Asian wheat. Quatern Int. 2016 Dec 28. pii: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.02.059.
13. Hou GL, Xu CJ, Cao GC, Er CY. The spatial-temporal simulation Of mankind's expansion on the Tibetan Plateau during last DE glaciation- middle Holocene. Quatern Sci. 2017; 37(4):709–720.
14. Zeng XQ, Guo Y, Xu QJ, Mascher M, Guo GG, Li SC, et al. Origin and evolution of qingke barley in Tibet. Nature. 2018 Dec 21.pii:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07920-5.
15. Hou W. Viewing Prehistoric Traffic and Trade in Tibet from Archeological Discoveries. China Tibet ology. 2013; 107(02): 5–24.
16. Huo W. On the early metallic wares and the early metallic Age in Tibet. Acta ArchaeologicaSinica. 2014; (3):327–350.
17. Tong T, Li LH. Himalayan golden mask in the Eurasian view.Archaeology.2015; (02): 92–102.
18. Lu HY, Zhang JP, Yang YM, Yang XY, Xu BQ, Yang WZ, et al. Earliest tea as evidence for one branch of the Silk Road across the Tibetan Plateau.Sci Rep-UK. 2016; 6(1): 18955.
19. Zhou WZ. Ancient Road investigates in Qinghai Area. J N W Univ (Phil Soc Sci). 1982; (01): 65–72.
20. Cui YH. Changes in the development of the Qinghai part of the Silk Road. Qinghai Soc Sci. 2016; (01):9–16:31.
21. Jia X, Dong GH, Wang L, Ma MM, Lee HF., Zhang ZC, et al. How Humans inhabited the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau during the Little Ice Age: a case study at Hualong County, Qinghai Province, China. Journal of Archaeological Sci Reports 2016;7:27–36.
22. Wu Z. Research on Qinghai road. N W J Ethnol. 1992; (2): 123–140.
23. Hou W. Viewing Tubo and Ancient Transport in Central Asia and West Asia from Archeological Material- The role of western Tibet in the spread of Tibetan Buddhism is also discussed. China Tibet ology. 1995; (04): 48–63.
24. Sun XS. Four questions on China-Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal traffic in the early Tang Dynasty.China Tibet ology. 2000; (04):64–74.
25. Li ZJ. The Southern Route to Tibet along the Hexi Corridor at the Tang Dynasty. Dunhuang Res.2007; (3):44–49.
26. Su HY. On the Evolution of Qinghai Silk Road from the International Perspective. Qinghai J Ethnol.2012; (3):136–139.
27. Chen XP. The Tang-Tibet Ancient Road. Qinghai Soc Sci. 1987;(03):70–76.
28. Bi JT, Wang XX. Researches and application of geo-spatial Technology to the history of the Silk Road. Arid Land Geogr. 2007; 30(6): 954–961.
29. Yue L, Zhang P. A GIS-based study of the real conditions of Ling Zhou Road as a part of the Silk Roads in the early Northern Song dynasty. J Yunnan Univ (Soc Sci). 2017 (16):62.
30. MaJ Li FY, PangGW Li CR, Liu W. The Restoration of the Ancient Silk Road on Land and Analysis of Geographical Features along the Route. Geogr Geo-Inform Sci. 2017 (4):123–128.
31. Frachetti MD, Smith CE, Traub CM, Williams T. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads. Nature. 2017;543(7644):193–198. doi: 10.1038/nature21696 28277506
32. CiolkTM. Old Word Trade Routes (OWTRAD) Project. 2012 Jul15.pii: http://www.ciolek.com/owtrad.html.
33. WilliamsT. The Silk Roads: an ICOMOS thematic study. Icomos. 2014Sep 08.pii: http://openarchive.icomos.org/id/eprint/1487
34. Wu J. From the Jiezhi Bridge to XinuoluoDak of the Trend of the Tang-Tibet Ancient Road—A Discussion on Some Issues in Sato's "Research on the Historical Geography of Tibet". China Tibet ology. 1988; (02):116–123.
35. Qing YJ, Zhang HS. Analysis of the several stations and the Dafei location in the Tang-Tibet Ancient Road in Hainan Prefecture. Qinghai J Ethnol. 1994; (04): 57–63.
36. Su HY, Yong JC, Yan B, You XN, et al. A new test on the trend of the Tang-Tibet Ancient Road from Da Zhen Pass to Shan Cheng section. J Qinghai Natl Univ (Soc Sci). 2011;37(03): 62–67.
37. Luo Y. A brief talk on the formation of Ji Long Roads used by the government during Tubo Period. Theor Platform Tibetan Dev. 2015; (01): 69–74.
38. Yu XH, Xi L. Archeological discoveries and reconstruction of road network in the Tang-Tibet Ancient Road. J Xizang Minus Univ (PhilosSoc Sci Edit). 2017; 38(06):53–59+155.
39. Chinese Academy of Sciences Computer Network Information Center. Tibetan Plateau DEM data (90m×90m); 2000 [cited 2018 Nov 10].Database:Open source data [Internet]. Available from:http://www.gscloud.cn
40. National Earth System Science Data Sharing Platform.China 1:250,000 data set of grade 1, 3, 4 and 5 rivers; 2002[cited 2018 Nov 10].Database: Open source data [Internet]. Available from:http://www.geodata.cn
41. CAAS. Establishment of National Basic Resource and Environmental Remote Sensing Dynamic Information Service System (96-B02-01): Construction of Temperature and Humidity Data Level at Ecological Environment Background (96-B02-01-02); 1995[cited 2018 Nov 10]. Database: Open source data[Internet]. Available from: http://www.caas.cn
42. China by the Resource and Environmental Science Data Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Spatial distribution data of 1:100,000 vegetation types in China; 2001[cited 2018 Nov 10].Database:Open source data [Internet]. Available from:http://www.resdc.cn/
43. Thematic Database for Human-Earth System. China population density data; 2000[cited 2018 Nov 10]. Database: Open source data[Internet]. Available from: http://www.data.ac.cn.
44. Zhang YL, Li BY, Zheng D. On the scope and area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.GeogrRes. 2002; (01):1–8.
45. Ma YM, Hu ZY, Tian LD, Zhang F, Duan AM, Yang K, et al. Study progresses of the Tibet Plateau climate system change and mechanism of its impact on East Asia. Prog Geogr.2014; 29(2): 207–215.
46. ZhengD,ZhaoDS. Natural Environmental Characteristics of Qinghai—Tibet Plateau. Sci &Technol Rev. 2017;35(06): 13–22.
47. Wu RS, Ma YM. Comparative analyses on radiation characteristics in different areas over the Tibetan Plateau. PlateauMeteoro.2010; 29(2): 251–259.
48. Zheng D, Zhang RZ, Yang QY. On the natural zonation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Acta Geogr Sin. 1979; 34(1): 1–11.
49. Zhao ZP, Liu JY, Shao QQ. Characteristic analysis of land cover change in nature reserve of Three River's source regions. Sci Geogr Sin. 2010; 30(3): 415–420.
50. National cultural heritage administration. Atlas of Chinese Cultural Relics: Tibet Volume and Qinghai Volume. 1st ed. Bei Jing: Cultural Relics Press; 2010. pp. 207–404(Tibet); 36-92(Qinghai).
51. Zhou XW. Yu Shu Survey. Xi Ning: Qinghai People’s Publishing House; 1986. pp. 22–106.
52. Ma HT. Gan Su-Qinghai-Tibetan Border Area Investigation. 1st ed. Lanzhou: Gan Su People’s Publishing House; 2003. pp. 137–276.
53. Chen XP. The Tang-Tibet Ancient Road. 1st ed. Xi’an: San Qin Publishing House; 1989. pp. 58–66.
54. Edited by the editorial department of Zhong Hua Book Company. Twenty-Four Books of History: [The Song Dynasty] New Tang Book • Geography • Long You Road • Xi Ping County to Shan Zhou.1st ed. Bei Jing: Zhong Hua Book Company Press; 2017. pp. 1040–1120.
55. Shaanxi Institute of Archaeology et al. From Chang'an to Lhasa: the Tang-Tibet Ancient Road Investigation Tour in 2014. Shang Hai: Shanghai Classics Publishing House; 2017. pp. 73–169.
56. National Earth System Science Data Sharing Platform. The geographical location data of administrative centers at the township level; 2012[cited 2018 Nov 10]. Database: Open source data [Internet]. Available from: http://www.tianditu.gov.cn/
57. Tsai Victor JD. Delaunay triangulations in TIN creation: an overview and a linear-time algorithm. Inter J GeogrInformSyst.1993; 7(6): 501–524.
58. Chen MJ. The difference between a mile and an acre. Archaeology. 1966; (01): 36–45.
59. Saaty ThomasL. Decision making—the Analytic Hierarchy and Network Processes (AHP/ANP). J Syst Sci Syst Eng. 2004;13(1):1–35.
60. Groucutt HS, White TS, Clark-Balzan L, Parton A, Crassard R, Shipton C, et al. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: Evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia. Quaternary Sci Rev.2015; 119: 116–135.
61. Wu TY. Challenges to Human Being under Hypoxia Environment on Plateau. J Med Res. 2006; 35(10): 1–3.
62. Xue HJ, Fang CJ. Theory of human adaptation to plateau and its application to traveling to the Tibet. J Arid LandResourEnviron.2011; 25(02): 183–189.
63. Feng ZM, Tang Y, Yang YZ, Zhang Dan. The ReliefDegree of Land Surface in China and Its Correlation with Population Distribution. Acta Geogr Sin. 2007; 62(10): 1073–1082.
64. Dai JX. The Climate of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Bei Jing: China Meteorological Press; 1990. pp.4–5.
65. Zhang YL, Qi W, Zhou CP, Ding MJ, Liu LS, Gao JG, et al. Spatial and temporal variability in the net primary production of alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau since 1982. Acta Geogr Sin.2013; 68(09): 1197–1211.
66. Frachetti MD, Smith CE, Traub CM, Williams T. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads(Supplementary Discussion). Nature. 2017; 543(7644):8–11
67. Chen ZQ, Shao QQ, Liu JY; Wang JB. Analysis of net primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau based on MODIS remote sensing data. Sci Sin (Terrae). 2012;42(03): 402–410.
68. Zhou CP, Ou YH, Wang QX, Du BZX, Sun QQ. Estimation of Net Primary Productivity in Tibetan Plateau ActaGeogr Sin. 2004; (01): 74–79.
69. He JS,FangJY, Piao SL, Xiao Y. Spatial Distribution of Grassland Biomass in China. Chinese J Plant Ecol.2004; (04):491–498.
70. Lu DD, Wang Z, Feng ZM. Academic debates on Hu Huan Yong population line. Geogr Res. 2016; 35(5): 805–824.
71. Jia X, Lee HF, Cui MC, Cheng GQ, Zhao Y, Ding H, et al. Differentiations of geographic distribution and subsistence strategiesbetween Tibetan and other major ethnic groups are determined by the physical environment in Hehuang Valley. Sci China Earth Sci. 2019;62:412–422.
72. Jia X, Lee HF, Cui MC, Liu C, Zeng L, Yue RPH, et al.Habitat Variability and Ethnic Diversity in Northern Tibetan Plateau. Sci Reports. 2017;7: 918.
73. Ge ML, Feng ZM. GIS——based Analysis of Population Distribution in 2000 in China. Popul Res. 2008; (32): 51–57.
74. Zhang FH, Liu JP, Li QY. A New Way of Network Analysis Based on Dijkstra. Remote Sens Inform. 2004; (02): 38–41.
75. West JB. Prediction of barometric pressures at high altitudes with the use of model atmospheres. J Appl Physiol. 1996; 81(4): 1850–1854. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1240 8904608
76. Zha RB, Sun GN, Dong ZB, Yu ZK. Assessment of Atmospheric Oxygen Practical Pressure and Plateau Reaction of Tourists in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Ecol and Environ Sci.2016; (1): 92–98.
77. Beall CM. Two routes to functional adaptation: Tibetan and Andean high-altitude natives. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007; 104 (Supplement 1): 8655–8600.
78. Shi PJ, Chen YQ, Zhang AY, He Y, Gao MN, Yang J, et al. Factors contribution to oxygen concentration in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull. 2018Nov 23. Pii:http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.1784.N.20181122.1426.010.html
79. Zhang ZB, Tian HD, Cazelles B, Kausrud KL, Bräuning A, Guo F, et al. Periodic climate cooling enhanced natural disasters and wars in China during AD 10–1900. P Roy Soc B-Biol Sci. 2010; 277(1701): 3745–3753.
80. Feng XP,ZhaoC, D’Andrea WJ, Liang J Zhou AF, Shen J. Temperature fluctuations during the Common Era in subtropical southwestern China inferred from brGDGTs in a remote alpine lake. Earth Planet Sc Lett. 2019; 510: 26–36.
81. Ge QS, Zheng JY, Hao ZX. PAGES synthesis study on climate changes in Asia over the last 2000 years: Progresses and perspectives. Acta Geogr Sin. 2015; 70(03): 355–363.
82. Yang B, Qin C, Wang J, He M, Melvin TM, Osborn TJ, Briffa KR. A 3500-year tree-ring record of annual precipitation on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111:2903–2908.
83. Hou GL, Yang P, Cao GC, E CY, Wang QB. Vegetation evolution and human expansion on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau since the Last DE glaciation. Quatern Int.2017 Feb12. pii: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.03.035