Lower IQ and poorer cognitive profiles in treated perinatally HIV-infected children is irrespective of having a background of international adoption

Autoři: M. Van den Hof aff001;  A. M. ter Haar aff001;  H. J. Scherpbier aff001;  P. Reiss aff002;  F. W. N. M. Wit aff002;  K. J. Oostrom aff005;  D. Pajkrt aff001
Působiště autorů: Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff001;  Department of Global Health, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff002;  HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff003;  Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, and Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff004;  Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Psychosocial Department, Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224930



HIV-associated cognitive deficiency in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children has been studied in Western countries in a population of which an increasing proportion has been internationally adopted. Studies often lack an appropriate internationally adopted HIV-uninfected control group, potentially confounding the relationship between HIV and cognitive functioning. This study aims to further elucidate the association between treated HIV infection and cognitive development by addressing the background of international adoption.


We cross-sectionally studied the impact of HIV on cognition by comparing PHIV children and HIV- uninfected controls, matched for age-, sex-, ethnicity-, socioeconomic status (SES)- and adoption status. We used a standardized neuropsychological test battery to measure intelligence (IQ), and the cognitive domains of processing speed, working memory, executive function, learning ability and visual-motor function and compared outcomes using lineair regression models, adjusted for IQ. We determined cognitive profiles and cognitive impairment by using multivariate normative comparison (MNC) and explored associations with HIV disease- and treatment-related factors.


We enrolled fourteen PHIV children (mean age 10.45 years [1.73 SD], 93% adopted from sub-Saharan Africa at a median age of 3.3 years [IQR 2.1–4.2]) and fifteen HIV- uninfected controls. Groups did not clinically nor statistically differ in age, sex, ethnicity, SES, region of birth, adoption status and age at adoption. PHIV scored consistently lower on all cognitive domains and MNC outcomes. Compared to controls, PHIV children had a significant lower IQ (mean 81 [SD 11] versus mean 97 [SD 15], p = 0.005), and a poorer cognitive profile by MNC (Hotelling’s T2 mean -4.36 [SD 5.6] versus mean 0.16 [SD 4.5], p = 0.021), not associated with HIV disease- and treatment-related factors. Two PHIV (14%) and one control (7%) were classified as cognitively impaired (p = 0.598).


Findings indicate treated HIV-infection to be independently associated with lower IQ and poorer cognitive profiles in PHIV children, irrespective of a background of international adoption.

Klíčová slova:

Cognition – Cognitive impairment – HIV diagnosis and management – Children – Learning – Vision – Working memory


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