Serological evidence of arboviruses and coccidia infecting horses in the Amazonian region of Brazil

Autoři: Fábio Alves Gomes aff001;  Ana Maria Jansen aff001;  Rosângela Zacarias Machado aff003;  Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena aff004;  Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli aff005;  Angélica Silva aff005;  Bruna Farias Alves aff004;  André Luiz Rodrigues Roque aff001;  Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo aff005
Působiště autorů: Laboratory of Trypanosomatid Biology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil aff001;  Federal Institute of Education Science and Technology of Roraima, Caracaraí, Roraima, Brazil aff002;  School of Agricultural and Veterinary Studies of Jaboticabal, São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil aff003;  School of Veterinary and Animal Science, Department of Preventive Veterinary and Animal Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil aff004;  Virology Research Center, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225895



Arboviruses and protozoans can cause neurologic disorders in horses. In Brazilian Amazon, several horses presenting signs compatible with disorders caused by these infectious agents have been observed.


To contribute to the knowledge of this epidemiological picture, we sought to construct a serological diagnostic panel for neurotrophic infectious agents in local horses.

Material and methods

A total of 213 blood samples from horses were collected from 29 farms in three municipalities. Samples were evaluated and considered positive when they met the following criteria: titers ≥ 1:80 with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for apicomplexan protozoans; positive recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with subsequent titers ≥ 1:10 by the PRNt for viruses; and detection under direct microscopic examination for Trypanosoma evansi.


No horses were found to be infected by T. evansi, and only two were infected Toxoplasma gondii and/or Neospora spp. The highest protozoan infection rate was observed for Sarcocystis neurona (40.3%; n = 86/213). Among the positive ELISA samples tested by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90), 92% (n = 76/83) were positive for St Louis Encephalitis virus, 43% (n = 6/14) were positive for West Nile virus and 33% (n = 16/48) were positive for Mayaro virus. Eighteen percent (n = 39/213) of horses were co-infected by S. neurona and at least one arbovirus, particularly SLEV and/or MAYV.


Samples positive for SLEV associated with S. neurona, including samples from horses that had recovered from neurological signs were frequent, and must be considered when investigating the possible causes of neurological diseases in South Roraima horses.

Klíčová slova:

Arboviral infections – Brazil – Enzyme-linked immunoassays – Horses – Mayaro virus – Protozoan infections – Trypanosoma – West Nile virus


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