Healing The Past By Nurturing The Future: A qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis of pregnancy, birth and early postpartum experiences and views of parents with a history of childhood maltreatment

Autoři: Catherine Chamberlain aff001;  Naomi Ralph aff001;  Stacey Hokke aff001;  Yvonne Clark aff001;  Graham Gee aff002;  Claire Stansfield aff006;  Katy Sutcliffe aff006;  Stephanie J. Brown aff002;  Sue Brennan aff003
Působiště autorů: Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia aff001;  Intergenerational Health Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia aff002;  School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia aff003;  Women and Kids Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia aff004;  Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia aff005;  Evidence for Policy and Practice Co-ordinating Centre, Social Science Research Unit, UCL Institute of Education, University College London, London, United Kingdom aff006;  Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children’s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225441



Child maltreatment can have serious effects on development and physical, social and emotional wellbeing. Any long-lasting relational effects can impede the capacity to nurture children, potentially leading to ‘intergenerational trauma’. Conversely, the transition to parenthood during pregnancy, birth and the early postpartum period offers a unique life-course opportunity for healing. This systematic review aims to understand the pregnancy, birth and early postpartum experiences of parents who reported maltreatment in their own childhood.


A protocol, based on the ENTREQ statement, was registered with PROSPERO. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, NHS Evidence and key Web of Science databases from date of inception to June 2018 to identify qualitative studies exploring perinatal experiences of parents who were maltreated in their own childhood. Two reviewers independently screened articles for inclusion and extracted data. Data were synthesised using grounded theory and thematic analysis approaches.


The search yielded 18329 articles, 568 full text articles were reviewed, and 50 studies (60 articles) met inclusion criteria for this review. Due to the large number of studies across the whole perinatal period (pregnancy to two years postpartum), this paper reports findings for experiences during pregnancy, birth and early postpartum (27 studies). Parents described positive experiences and strategies to help them achieve their hopes and dreams of providing safe, loving and nurturing care for their children. However, many parents experienced serious challenges. Seven core analytic themes encapsulated these diverse and dynamic experiences: New beginnings; Changing roles and identities; Feeling connected; Compassionate care; Empowerment; Creating safety; and Reweaving a future.


Pregnancy birth and the early postpartum period is a unique life-course healing opportunity for parents with a history of maltreatment. Understanding parent’s experiences and views of perinatal care and early parenting is critical for informing the development of acceptable and effective support strategies.

Klíčová slova:

Adolescents – Birth – Culture – Database searching – Emotions – Human families – Child abuse – Pregnancy


1. World Health Organisation. Child maltreatment factsheet. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2016 [cited 14/11/2017]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs150/en/.

2. Sara G, Lappin J. Childhood trauma: psychiatry's greatest public health challenge? Lancet Public Health. 2017;2(7):e300–e1. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30104-4 29253454

3. McCrory E, De Brito S, Viding E. Research review: The neurobiology and genetics of maltreatment and adversity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51(10):1079–95. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02271.x 20546078

4. De Bellis MD, Zisk A. The biological effects of childhood trauma. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2014;23(2):185–222. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2014.01.002 24656576

5. Alexander PC. Intergenerational cycles of trauma and violence: An attachment and family systems perspective. New York: W W Norton & Co; 2015.

6. Chamberlain C, Gee G, Harfield S, Campbell S, Brennan S, Clark Y, et al. Parenting after a history of childhood maltreatment: A scoping review and map of evidence in the perinatal period. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(3):e0213460. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213460 30865679

7. Cloitre M, Garvert D, Weiss B, Carlson E, Bryant R. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2014;5. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.25097 25279111

8. Herman JL. Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. J Trauma Stress. 1992;5(3):377–91.

9. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

10. Kezelman C, Stavropoulos P. Practice guidelines for treatment of complex trauma and trauma informed care and service delivery. Sydney: Blue Knot Foundation; 2012.

11. Bellis MA, Hughes K, Leckenby N, Perkins C, Lowey H. National household survey of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with resilience to health-harming behaviors in England. BMC Med. 2014;12:72. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-12-72 24886026

12. Grote NK, Spieker SJ, Lohr MJ, Geibel SL, Swartz HA, Frank E, et al. Impact of childhood trauma on the outcomes of a perinatal depression trial. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29(7):563–73. doi: 10.1002/da.21929 22447637

13. Dierkhising CB, Ko SJ, Woods-Jaeger B, Briggs EC, Lee R, Pynoos RS. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2013;4. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.20274 23869252

14. Dahlberg L, Krug E. Violence-a global public health problem Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002 [cited 10/10/2018]. 1–56]. Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/chap1.pdf.

15. Violence Prevention Alliance. The ecological framework. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2016 [cited 9/9/2016]. Available from: http://www.who.int/violenceprevention/approach/ecology/en/.

16. Chamberlain C, Gee G, Brown SJ, Atkinson J, Herrman H, Gartland D, et al. Healing the Past by Nurturing the Future–co-designing perinatal strategies for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parents experiencing complex trauma: Framework and protocol for a community-based participatory action research study. BMJ Open. 2019;9(6):e028397. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028397 31189682

17. Atkinson J, Nelson J, Atkinson C. Trauma, transgenerational transfer and effects on community wellbeing. In: Purdie N, Dudgeon P, Walker R, editors. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing practices and principles. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia; 2010.

18. O'Donnell M, Taplin S, Marriott R, Lima F, Stanley FJ. Infant removals: The need to address the over-representation of Aboriginal infants and community concerns of another 'stolen generation'. Child Abuse Negl. 2019;90:88–98. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.01.017 30769191

19. Scott D. The prevalence of child abuse and neglect. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2013.

20. Atkinson C. The violence continuum: Aboriginal Australian male violence and generational post-traumatic stress. Australia: Charles Darwin University; 2008.

21. SNAICC–National Voice for our Children, The University of Melbourne and Griffith University. The Family Matters Report: Measuring trends to turn the tide on the over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in out-of-home care in Australia. Melbourne: SNAICC–National Voice for our Children, 2018.

22. Font SA, Maguire-Jack K. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions. Child Abuse Negl. 2015;51:390–9. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.05.013 26059537

23. Blackmore ER, Putnam FW, Pressman EK, Rubinow DR, Putnam KT, Matthieu MM, et al. The effects of trauma history and prenatal affective symptoms on obstetric outcomes. J Trauma Stress. 2016;29(3):245–52. doi: 10.1002/jts.22095 27276162

24. McCrory C, Dooley C, Layte R, Kenny RA. The lasting legacy of childhood adversity for disease risk in later life. Health Psychol. 2015;34(7):687–96. doi: 10.1037/hea0000147 25150540

25. Amos J, Furber G, Segal L. Understanding maltreating mothers: A synthesis of relational trauma, attachment disorganization, structural dissociation of the personality, and experiential avoidance. J Trauma Dissociation. 2011;12(5):495–509. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2011.593259 21967177

26. Amos J, Furber G, Segal L, Cantor C, editors. When wounds from infancy collide. Parallel parent and child therapy (P-PACT): A dyadic psychotherapy for mothers and their children aged 3–12 years caught in intergenerational cycles of neglect and abuse. RANZCP 2015 Congress; 2015 3–7 May; Brisbane, Australia: Sage Publications.

27. Braveman P. What is health equity: And how does a life-course approach take us further toward it? Matern Child Health J. 2014;18(2):366–72. doi: 10.1007/s10995-013-1226-9 23397099

28. Fava NM, Simon VA, Smith E, Khan M, Kovacevic M, Rosenblum KL, et al. Perceptions of general and parenting-specific posttraumatic change among postpartum mothers with histories of childhood maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl. 2016;56:20–9. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.04.007 27131270

29. Teplin LA, Welty LJ, Abram KM, Washburn JJ, Dulcan MK. Prevalence and persistence of psychiatric disorders in youth after detention: A prospective longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(10):1031–43. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2062 23026953

30. Bartlett JD. Young mothers, infant neglect, and discontinuities in intergenerational cycles of maltreatment. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2012;73(6-B):3984.

31. Marmot M, Allen J, Bell R, Bloomer E, Goldblatt P. WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. The Lancet. 2012;380(9846):1011–29.

32. DeGregorio LJ. Intergenerational transmission of abuse: Implications for parenting interventions from a neuropsychological perspective. Traumatology. 2013;19(2):158–66. doi: 10.1177/1534765612457219

33. Tong A, Flemming K, McInnes E, Oliver S, Craig J. Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research: ENTREQ. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012;12(1):181. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-181 23185978

34. Welch V, Petticrew M, Petkovic J, Moher D, Waters E, White H, et al. Extending the PRISMA statement to equity-focused systematic reviews (PRISMA-E 2012): Explanation and elaboration. Int J Equity Health. 2015;14:92. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0219-2 26450828

35. Wark J, Vis J-A. Effects of child sexual abuse on the parenting of male survivors. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2016;19(5):499–511. doi: 10.1177/1524838016673600 27770031

36. LoGiudice JA. A systematic literature review of the childbearing cycle as experienced by survivors of sexual abuse. Nurs Womens Health. 2017;20(6):582–94. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2016.10.008 27938798

37. Montgomery E. Feeling safe: A metasynthesis of the maternity care needs of women who were sexually abused in childhood. Birth. 2013;40(2):88–95. doi: 10.1111/birt.12043 24635462

38. Oliver S, Dickson K, Bangpan M, Newman M. Getting started with a review. In: Gough D, Oliver S, Thomas J, editors. An introduction to systematic reviews. 2 ed. London: SAGE Publications; 2017. p. 77.

39. QSR International Pty Ltd. NVivo Version 12. 2018.

40. Thomas J, Harden A. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8(1):45. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-8-45 18616818

41. Britten N, Campbell R, Pope C, Donovan J, Morgan M, Pill R. Using meta ethnography to synthesise qualitative research: A worked example. Journal of health services research & policy. 2002;7(4):209–15. doi: 10.1258/135581902320432732 12425780

42. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Qualitative Research Checklist 2013. Available from: https://casp-uk.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/CASP-Qualitative-Checklist-Download.pdf.

43. Lewin S, Booth A, Glenton C, Munthe-Kaas H, Rashidian A, Wainwright M, et al. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings: Introduction to the series. Implement Sci. 2018;13(Supp 1):2. doi: 10.1186/s13012-017-0688-3 29384079

44. Lewin S, Bohren M, Rashidian A, Munthe-Kaas H, Glenton C, Colvin CJ, et al. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings—paper 2: How to make an overall CERQual assessment of confidence and create a Summary of Qualitative Findings table. Implement Sci. 2018;13(Supp 1):10. doi: 10.1186/s13012-017-0689-2 29384082

45. Berman H, Mason R, Hall J, Rodger S, Classen CC, Evans MK, et al. Laboring to mother in the context of past trauma: the transition to motherhood. Qual Health Res. 2014;24(9):1253–64. doi: 10.1177/1049732314521902 24501114

46. Byrne J, Smart C, Watson G. "I felt like i was being abused all over again": How survivors of child sexual abuse make sense of the perinatal period through their narratives. J Child Sex Abus. 2017;26(4):465–86. doi: 10.1080/10538712.2017.1297880 28537852

47. Cohen T. Experiences of motherhood among women who were victims of childhood incest. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: Sciences and Engineering. 1987;48(4-B):1148.

48. Coles J, Jones K. "Universal Precautions": Perinatal touch and examination after childhood sexual abuse. Birth. 2009;36(3):230–6. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00327.x 19747270

49. Coles J. Qualitative study of breastfeeding after childhood sexual assault. J Hum Lact. 2009;25(3):317–24. doi: 10.1177/0890334409334926 19414736

50. Datta J, Macdonald G, Barlow J, Barnes J, Elbourne D. Challenges faced by young mothers with a care history and views of stakeholders about the potential for Group Family Nurse Partnership to support their needs. Child Soc. 2017;31(463–474).

51. Garratt EF. The childbearing experiences of survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International Section C: Worldwide. 2018;75(4-C).

52. Kennedy AC, Agbényiga DL, Kasiborski N, Gladden J. Risk chains over the life course among homeless urban adolescent mothers: altering their trajectories through formal support. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2010;32(12):1740–9.

53. Lasiuk GC. The lived experience of pregnancy and birthing of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Canada: University of Alberta; 2007.

54. Lee SRC. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse and the childbearing year. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2001;62(4-B):2064.

55. McCoy JJ. Maternal perceptions and pregnancy experiences of former foster youth with histories of sexual abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2015;76(4-B(E)).

56. Miura PO, Tardivo L, Barrientos DMS. Helplessness experienced by adolescent mothers and pregnant adolescents sheltered in institutions. Cienc Saude Coletiva. 2018;23(5):1601–10. doi: 10.1590/1413-81232018235.14152016 29768613

57. Montgomery E, Pope C, Rogers J. A feminist narrative study of the maternity care experiences of women who were sexually abused in childhood. Midwifery. 2015;31(1):54–60. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2014.05.010 24929272

58. Montgomery E, Pope C, Rogers J. The re-enactment of childhood sexual abuse in maternity care: A qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15:194. doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0626-9 26306798

59. Muzik M, Ads M, Bonham C, Lisa Rosenblum K, Broderick A, Kirk R. Perspectives on trauma-informed care from mothers with a history of childhood maltreatment: A qualitative study. Child Abuse Negl. 2013;37(12):1215–24. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.07.014 23978576

60. O'Brien DW. A qualitative study of parenting by incest survivors. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 1999;59(7-A):2721.

61. Palmer BC. The childbearing experience of women who are childhood sexual abuse survivors. Canada: University of British Columbia; 2005.

62. Parratt J. The experience of childbirth for survivors of incest. Midwifery. 1994;10(1):26–39. doi: 10.1016/0266-6138(94)90006-x 8159119

63. Rhodes N, Hutchinson S. Labor experiences of childhood sexual abuse survivors. Birth. 1994;21(4):213–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-536x.1994.tb00532.x 7857468

64. Richmond KK. Being whole: Aligning personhoods to achieve successful childbirth with a history of childhood sexual abuse during perinatal services. United States of America: University of San Diego; 2006.

65. Roberts RE. The survivors of child maltreatment description of the process of becoming a parent: A grounded theory study. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2011;72(6-B):3765.

66. Roller CG. Moving beyond the pain: Women's responses to the perinatal period after childhood sexual abuse. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2011;56(5):488–93. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2011.00051.x 23181647

67. Saewyc EM. Meanings of pregnancy and motherhood among out-of-home pregnant adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2000;60(11-B):5437.

68. Schwerdtfeger KL, Wampler KS. Sexual trauma and pregnancy: A qualitative exploration of women's dual life experience. Contemp Fam Ther. 2009;31(2):100–22. doi: 10.1007/s10591-009-9083-9

69. Seng JS, Sparbel KJ, Low LK, Killion C. Abuse-related posttraumatic stress and desired maternity care practices: Women's perspectives. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2002;47(5):360–70. doi: 10.1016/s1526-9523(02)00284-2 12361348

70. Seng JS, Low LK, Sparbel KJ, Killion C. Abuse-related post-traumatic stress during the childbearing year. J Adv Nurs. 2004;46(6):604–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03051.x 15154901

71. Swartz NE, Mercier DJ, Curran MA. Influences of childhood abuse on parenting perspectives of pregnant cohabitors. J Fam Violence. 2012;27(6):597–606. doi: 10.1007/s10896-012-9452-2

72. White A, Danis M, Gillece J. Abuse survivor perspectives on trauma inquiry in obstetrical practice. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016;19(2):423–7. doi: 10.1007/s00737-015-0547-7 26189448

73. Williams C, Vines SW. Broken past, fragile future: Personal stories of high-risk adolescent mothers. J Soc Pediatr Nurs. 1999;4(1):15–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155.1999.tb00076.x 10334008

74. Wood K, Van Esterik P. Infant feeding experiences of women who were sexually abused in childhood. Can Fam Physician. 2010;56(4):e136–41. 20393075

75. Pitre NY. Mothering and Trust among women living with a history of childhood violence experiences: A critical feminist narrative inquiry. Canada: University of Alberta; 2011.

76. Eshed Bar-Sade I. Is there a construct of resilience in fathers who were neglected in childhood and do not maltreat their own children? Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2008;69(4-B):2622.

77. Searle J, Goldberg L, Aston M, Burrow S. Accessing new understandings of trauma-informed care with queer birthing women in a rural context. J Clin Nurs. 2017;26(21–22):3576–87. doi: 10.1111/jocn.13727 28071870

78. Olsen JM. Integrative review of pregnancy health risks and outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2018;47(6):783–94. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2018.09.005 30308147

79. la Bastide-van Gemert S, Stolk RP, van den Heuvel ER, Fidler V. Causal inference algorithms can be useful in life course epidemiology. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2014;67(2):190–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.07.019 24275501

80. Graham H. Building an inter-disciplinary science of health inequalities: The example of lifecourse research. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55(11):2005–16. doi: 10.1016/s0277-9536(01)00343-4 12406467

81. Ben-Shlomo Y, Kuh D. A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31(2):285–93. doi: 10.1093/ije/31.2.285 11980781

82. Britto PR, Lye SJ, Proulx K, Yousafzai AK, Matthews SG, Vaivada T, et al. Nurturing care: Promoting early childhood development. The Lancet. 2016;389(10064):91–102. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31390-3

83. Black MM, Walker SP, Fernald LCH, Andersen CT, DiGirolamo AM, Lu C, et al. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. The Lancet. 2017;389(10064):77–90. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7 27717614

84. Richter LM, Daelmans B, Lombardi J, Heymann J, Boo FL, Behrman JR, et al. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development. The Lancet. 2017;389(10064):103–18. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31698-1 27717610

85. Bartholomew Eldrigde LK, Markham CM, Ruiter RAC, Fernàndez ME, Kok G, Parcel GS. Planning health promotion programs: An Intervention Mapping approach (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2016.

86. Social Policy Research Centre and Nulungu Research Centre. Discussion Paper: Development of a renewed Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander social and emotional wellbeing framework. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia, 2013.

87. Butler TL, Anderson K, Garvey G, Cunningham J, Ratcliffe J, Tong A, et al. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's domains of wellbeing: A comprehensive literature review. Soc Sci Med. 2019;233:138–57. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.06.004 31200269

88. Johnstone L, Boyle M, Cromby J, Dillon J, Harper D, Kinderman P, et al. The Power Threat Meaning Framework: Towards the identification of patterns in emotional distress, unusual experiences and troubled or troubling behaviour, as an alternative to functional psychiatric diagnosis Leicester: British Psychological Society, 2018.

89. Wilson J, Jungner G. Principles and practice of screening for disease. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1968.

90. Department of Health. Population based screening framework Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2018 [cited 2019 28/10/2019]. Available from: http://www.cancerscreening.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/16AE0B0524753EE9CA257CEE0000B5D7/$File/Population-Based-Screening-Framework.pdf.

91. Rollans M, Schmied V, Kemp L, Meade T. Digging over that old ground: An Australian perspective of women's experience of psychosocial assessment and depression screening in pregnancy and following birth. BMC Womens Health. 2013;13:18. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-13-18 23570282

92. Atkinson J. Trauma trails, recreating song lines: The transgenerational effects of trauma in Indigenous Australia. North Melbourne: Spinifex Press; 2002.

93. Atkinson J. Lifting the blankets: The transgenerational effects of trauma in Indigenous Australia. Australia: Queensland University of Technology; 2001.

94. McLachlan HL, Forster DA, Davey MA, Farrell T, Gold L, Biro MA, et al. Effects of continuity of care by a primary midwife (caseload midwifery) on caesarean section rates in women of low obstetric risk: The COSMOS randomised controlled trial. Bjog. 2012;119(12):1483–92. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03446.x 22830446

95. Tracy SK, Hartz DL, Tracy MB, Allen J, Forti A, Hall B, et al. Caseload midwifery care versus standard maternity care for women of any risk: M@NGO, a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. 2013;382(9906):1723–32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61406-3

96. Homer CS. Models of maternity care: Evidence for midwifery continuity of care. Med J Aust. 2016;205(8):370–4. doi: 10.5694/mja16.00844 27736625

97. Australian Research Centre for the Health of Women and Babies. Evidence Evaluation Report: Evaluation of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for caregiving practices and behaviours for optimal social and emotional development of infants: an overview of systematic reviews. Adelaide: The University of Adelaide, 2017.

98. Strobel NA, Arabena K, East CE, Schultz EM, Kelaher M, Edmond KM, et al. Care co-ordination interventions to improve outcomes during pregnancy and early childhood (up to 5 years). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:CD012761. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012761

99. Segal L, Guy S, Furber G. What is the current level of mental health service delivery and expenditure on infants, children, adolescents, and young people in Australia? Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2018;52(2):163–72. doi: 10.1177/0004867417717796 28709383

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden