Children’s reliance on the non-verbal cues of a robot versus a human

Autoři: Josje Verhagen aff001;  Rianne van den Berghe aff001;  Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz aff001;  Aylin Küntay aff003;  Paul Leseman aff001
Působiště autorů: Utrecht University, Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Heidelberglaan 1, CS Utrecht, the Netherlands aff001;  University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication, Spuistraat,VB Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff002;  Koç University, Department of Psychology, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


Robots are used for language tutoring increasingly often, and commonly programmed to display non-verbal communicative cues such as eye gaze and pointing during robot-child interactions. With a human speaker, children rely more strongly on non-verbal cues (pointing) than on verbal cues (labeling) if these cues are in conflict. However, we do not know how children weigh the non-verbal cues of a robot. Here, we assessed whether four- to six-year-old children (i) differed in their weighing of non-verbal cues (pointing, eye gaze) and verbal cues provided by a robot versus a human; (ii) weighed non-verbal cues differently depending on whether these contrasted with a novel or familiar label; and (iii) relied differently on a robot’s non-verbal cues depending on the degree to which they attributed human-like properties to the robot. The results showed that children generally followed pointing over labeling, in line with earlier research. Children did not rely more strongly on the non-verbal cues of a robot versus those of a human. Regarding pointing, children who perceived the robot as more human-like relied on pointing more strongly when it contrasted with a novel label versus a familiar label, but children who perceived the robot as less human-like did not show this difference. Regarding eye gaze, children relied more strongly on the gaze cue when it contrasted with a novel versus a familiar label, and no effect of anthropomorphism was found. Taken together, these results show no difference in the degree to which children rely on non-verbal cues of a robot versus those of a human and provide preliminary evidence that differences in anthropomorphism may interact with children’s reliance on a robot’s non-verbal behaviors.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Eyes – Children – Language – Learning – Robotic behavior – Robots – Sensory perception


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