Classification of flavors in cigarillos and little cigars and their variable cellular and acellular oxidative and cytotoxic responses


Autoři: Gina R. Lawyer aff001;  Monica Jackson aff001;  Melanie Prinz aff001;  Thomas Lamb aff001;  Qixin Wang aff001;  Thivanka Muthumalage aff001;  Irfan Rahman aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226066

Souhrn

Flavored tobacco products are increasing in popularity but remain unregulated, with the exception of the ban on flavored conventional cigarettes. Lack of regulation of cigarillos and little cigars allows vendors to have their own version of popular flavors, each with different chemical components. A new classification system was created for flavored cigars in order to easily communicate our results with the scientific community. To understand the physicochemical characteristics of flavored little cigars and cigarillo smoke, size distribution and concentration of particulate matter in smoke were determined. Acellular reactive oxygen species generation was measured as an indirect measurement of the potential to cause oxidative stress in cells. In addition, cigarillo smoke extract treatment on bronchial epithelial (Beas-2b) cells were assessed to determine the flavor-induced cellular toxicity. Flavored cigars/cigarillos showed significant variability in the tested parameters between flavors as well as brands of the same flavor, but most of the cigars showed higher potential of generating oxidative stress, than research grade cigarettes. Flavored cigars produced maximum particle concentrations at 1.0μm and 4.0 μm compared with 3R4F reference research cigarettes. A differential cytotoxic response was observed with cigarillo smoke extract treatments, with “fruits/candy” and “drinks” being the most toxic, but were not more cytotoxic than smoke from cigarettes. These cigarillos with flavors must be well characterized for toxicity in order to prevent adverse effects caused by exposure to flavor chemicals. Our study provides insight into understanding the potential health effects of flavor-infused cigars/cigarillos and the need for the regulation of those flavoring chemicals in these products. Future research is directed to determine the flavoring toxicity of little cigars and cigarillos in vivo studies.

Klíčová slova:

Fruits – Hydrogen peroxide – Owls – Particulates – Smoking habits – Smoking related disorders – Toxicity – Grapes


Zdroje

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