Factors influencing harmonized health data collection, sharing and linkage in Denmark and Switzerland: A systematic review

Autoři: Lester Darryl Geneviève aff001;  Andrea Martani aff001;  Maria Christina Mallet aff002;  Tenzin Wangmo aff001;  Bernice Simone Elger aff001
Působiště autorů: Institute for Biomedical Ethics, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland aff001;  Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland aff002;  University Center of Legal Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226015



The digitalization of medicine has led to a considerable growth of heterogeneous health datasets, which could improve healthcare research if integrated into the clinical life cycle. This process requires, amongst other things, the harmonization of these datasets, which is a prerequisite to improve their quality, re-usability and interoperability. However, there is a wide range of factors that either hinder or favor the harmonized collection, sharing and linkage of health data.


This systematic review aims to identify barriers and facilitators to health data harmonization—including data sharing and linkage—by a comparative analysis of studies from Denmark and Switzerland.


Publications from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and CINAHL involving cross-institutional or cross-border collection, sharing or linkage of health data from Denmark or Switzerland were searched to identify the reported barriers and facilitators to data harmonization.


Of the 345 projects included, 240 were single-country and 105 were multinational studies. Regarding national projects, a Swiss study reported on average more barriers and facilitators than a Danish study. Barriers and facilitators of a technical nature were most frequently reported.


This systematic review gathered evidence from Denmark and Switzerland on barriers and facilitators concerning data harmonization, sharing and linkage. Barriers and facilitators were strictly interrelated with the national context where projects were carried out. Structural changes, such as legislation implemented at the national level, were mirrored in the projects. This underlines the impact of national strategies in the field of health data. Our findings also suggest that more openness and clarity in the reporting of both barriers and facilitators to data harmonization constitute a key element to promote the successful management of new projects using health data and the implementation of proper policies in this field. Our study findings are thus meaningful beyond these two countries.

Klíčová slova:

Data management – Denmark – Finance – Health services research – Legislation – Public and occupational health – Switzerland – Systematic reviews


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