High prevalence of abnormal menstruation among women living with HIV in Canada

Autoři: Christina Valiaveettil aff001;  Mona Loutfy aff002;  V. Logan Kennedy aff003;  Sheila Caddy aff004;  Mark Yudin aff002;  Tracey Conway aff003;  Erin Ding aff006;  Paul Sereda aff006;  Alexandra de Pokomandy aff007;  Angela Kaida aff009
Působiště autorů: Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada aff001;  Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada aff002;  Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada aff003;  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada aff004;  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada aff005;  British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada aff006;  Chronic Viral Illness Service, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada aff007;  Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada aff008;  Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada aff009
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226992



To measure the prevalence and correlates of abnormal menstruation among women living with HIV (WLWH) in Canada.


We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from the community-based Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), which enrolled WLWH aged ≥16 from British Columbia (BC), Ontario, and Quebec. For this analysis, we excluded women >45 years, who had primary amenorrhea, were pregnant, on hormonal contraception, or who reported history of endometrial cancer, last menstrual period >12 months ago, or premature ovarian failure. The primary outcome was abnormal menstruation (Yes vs No) based on responses to five questions about menstrual regularity, frequency, volume, duration, and intermenstrual bleeding in the six months prior to interview. An exploratory multivariable logistic regression analysis examined independent correlates of abnormal menstruation.


Of 1422 women enrolled, 521 (37%) met eligibility criteria. Overall, 55.9% (95% CI:52%-60%) reported abnormal menstruation. In adjusted analyses, abnormal menstruation was associated with having a biologic sister/mother who entered menopause before age 40 (AOR 5.01, 95%CI 1.39–18.03), Hepatitis B co-infection (AOR 6.97, 95%CI 1.52–31.88), current smoking (AOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.55–3.41); and currently taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) (AOR 2.36, 95%CI 1.25–4.45) compared to being ART-naïve. Women in BC had higher adjusted odds of abnormal menstruation (AOR 2.95, 95%CI 1.61–5.39), relative to women in Ontario and Quebec.


Over half of WLWH in this analysis had abnormal menstruation. Correlates of abnormal menstruation include genetic, socio-behavioural factors (province of residence, smoking), Hepatitis B co-infection, and current ART use.

Klíčová slova:

Co-infections – Female contraception – Hepatitis B – HIV diagnosis and management


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