The delay of motherhood: Reasons, determinants, time used to achieve pregnancy, and maternal anxiety level


Autoři: Leticia Molina-García aff001;  Manuel Hidalgo-Ruiz aff002;  Eva María Cocera-Ruíz aff003;  Esther Conde-Puertas aff003;  Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez aff004;  Juan Miguel Martínez-Galiano aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Complejo Hospitalario de Jaén, Andalucia, Jaén, Spain aff001;  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital San Juan de la Cruz, Andalucia, Úbeda, Spain aff002;  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital San Agustín, Andalucia, Linares, Spain aff003;  Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaén, Andalucia, Jaén, Spain aff004;  Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, Spain aff005;  Department of Nursing, University of Jaén, Andalucia, Jaén, Spain aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227063

Souhrn

Background

Fertility in recent decades in European countries such as Norway, Spain or United Kingdom has declined, while in others such as Portugal, it has remained relatively constant, and in others such as Germany fertility rated have risen. The determinants of this change in reproductive pattern can be explained by the cultural, social, and economic changes that took place in our society. Objective: to identify the principal reasons and independent determinants associated with the postponement of motherhood and document any association between the time taken to achieve successful pregnancy and maternal age, as well as the level of anxiety of these women.

Methods

An observational study, including 326 women, was conducted in Spain with primiparous women, in which data was collected on sociodemographic, health, and pregnancy-related factors. Comparison of means (t-test or analysis of variance) and the analysis of covariance was used to estimate adjusted means for potential confounders.

Results

Women in stable relationships became mothers at older ages (31.83±0.29) than those who were not (28.75±0.78) (p<0.001). Women who delayed motherhood for medical reasons had a mean age of 34.15 ± 0.88 years, compared to a mean of 30.52±0.36 years for personal reasons, and 27.51±1.39 years for other reasons. Mothers with an older age had a higher level of anxiety (p<0.05). The average time required to achieve pregnancy increased as maternal age increased, with an average time of 24 months for women with a mean age of 35.23±0.71 years compared to <3 months for women with a mean age of 29.44±0.39 years. Women ≥ 35 years were more likely to need medical assistance to achieve pregnancy (aOR = 12.07, 95% CI: 1.50–97.05; p = 0.019).

Conclusions

Medical reasons were among those cited for delaying motherhood. The postponement of motherhood was associated with difficulty to achieve a successful pregnancy and a higher level of anxiety.

Klíčová slova:

Educational attainment – Employment – Labor and delivery – Medical education – Miscarriage – Mothers – Obstetrics and gynecology – Pregnancy


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2019 Číslo 12