Sap flow of Salix psammophila and its principal influencing factors at different slope positions in the Mu Us desert

Autoři: Zhiyong Pei aff001;  Shaorong Hao aff001;  Guohui Pang aff001;  Kai Wang aff001;  Tiejun Liu aff002
Působiště autorů: College of Energy and Transportation Engineering of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China aff001;  Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area, Ministry of Water Resources, Hohhot, China aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


The changes in sap flow of Salix psammophila growing on a gentle slope (lower slope, P1), a middle slope (P2), and an upper slope (P3), and the response of sap flow to meteorological factors at the different slope positions were studied using the continuous and synchronized observations, the instrument were wrapped stem flowmeter EMS 62 sap-flow heat-balance-based system and the LSI-LASTEM automatic weather station. The results revealed that the soil moisture content was the highest and the growth conditions of Salix psammophila were the best at P1, followed by P2. At P3, however, although good apical dominance was observed, the proportion of dead branches was the highest. Furthermore, the daily variation patterns of sap flow on the three slopes presented as multi-peak bell-shaped curves. The daily accumulation changes in sap flow showed a trend of P1 > P3 > P2, and within the same diameter range, the sap flow at P1 was significantly different from that at P2 and P3, whereas the sap flow at P2 and P3 did not vary significantly. All the three slopes showed a significant and positive correlation with photosynthetically active radiation, atmospheric temperature, and vapor pressure difference, and a significant and negative correlation with relative humidity; however, the degrees of correlation varied slightly. The stepwise regression analysis showed that, at different slopes, different variables were selected for different branch diameters, but photosynthetically active radiation and atmospheric temperature played dominant roles on all slopes. This study reveals the sap flow pattern of Salix psammophila on different slopes and its response mechanism to meteorological factors, which was essential for understanding the restoration ability, physiological adaptability, and ecosystem stability of Salix psammophila communities.

Klíčová slova:

Deserts – Flow rate – Leaves – Shrubs – Solar radiation – Vapor pressure – Water resources – Wind


1. Cheng J, Han JC, Wang HY, Zhang Y, Zhang WH, Chen KH. Study on Sand-fixing Mechanism by Feldspathic Sandstone in Mu Us Sand Land[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation,2016;30(05):124–127. doi: 10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2016.05.021

2. Pei ZY, Duan GD, Hao SR, Qiao JW, Qin W. Optimization of stumping method based on wind control benefit for Salix psammophila shrub in Mu Us sandy land[J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2019;35(04):153–161. doi: 10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2019.04.019

3. Gao Y, Qiu GY, Ding GD, Qing SYX, Yu Y, Hu CY, et al. Effect of Salix psammophila Checkerboard on Reducing Wind and Stabilizing Sand[J]. Journal OF Desert Research, 2004;(03):111–116. doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-694X.2004.03.019

4. An H, Wang JB, An Y. Effects of shrub density on growth of artificial Salix psammophila and soil moisture dynamics in Mu Us sandy land[J]. Agricultural Research in the Arid Areas, 2012;30(01):197–203. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-7601.2012.01.034

5. Wang SL, Li YH, Yu SL. Pioneer species of mobile sand dunes—Salix psammophila[J]. The Journal of Hebei Forestry Science and Technology, 2012;(02):109. doi: 10.16449/j.cnki.issn1002-3356.2012.02.058

6. Wu XL, Ye GF, Wu WY, Yin L, Zhang LH. Transpiration rate and influencing environmental factors of Casuarina equisetifolia on coastal sand[J]. Journal of Fujian College of Forestry, 2013;33(01):1–6. doi: 10.13324/j.cnki.jfcf.2013.01.011

7. She DL, Shao MA, Yu SE. Water Balance Simulation in SPAC System of Slope Lands Covered with Typical Vegetations on Loess Plateau [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, 2011;42(05):73–78. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-1298.2011.05.014

8. Wang XP, Berndtsson Ronny; Li XR, Er-Si Kang. Water balance change for a re-vegetated xerophyte shrub area/Changement du bilan hydrique d’une zone replantéed’ arbustes xérophiles[J]. Hydrological Sciences Journal.2004; Vol.49(No.2):295. doi: 10.1623/hysj.

9. Ren QW, Bi J, Li LD, You HZ, Gao KH. Stem sap flow characteristic of Betula platyphylla during growth season in northern mountain areas of Hebei province[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 2017;31(11):169–174. doi: 10.13448/j.cnki.jalre.2017.365

10. Deng JF, Ding GD, Gao GL, et al. The sap flow dynamics and response of hedysarum scoparium to environmental factors in semiarid northwestern China[J]. Plos One, 2015;10(7): e131683. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131683 26136229

11. Xu SQ, Ji XB, Jin BW. Dynamics of sap flow density in stems of typical desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum and its responses to environmental variables. [J]. The Journal of Applied Ecology. 2016;Vol.27(No.2):345–353. doi: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.201602.033

12. Wang XP, Zhang YF, Hua R, Pan YX, Berndtsson R. Canopy storage capacity of xerophytic shrubs in Northwestern China[J].Hydro.2012;454–455:152–159. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.06.003

13. Liu Bing, Zhao Wenzhi, Jin Bowen. The response of sap flow in desert shrubs to environmental variables in an arid region of China[J].Ecohydrology,2011;4(3):448–457. doi: 10.1002/eco.151

14. Hong GY, Zhang XJ, Zhang L, Gao XW, Liu GH, Li ZF, et al. Dynamic Study on Stem Sap Flow Rate of Hedysarum fruiticosum var. mongolicum in Mu Us Sandy Land[J]. Journal of Inner Mongolia Forestry Science & Technology, 2018;44(04):35–38. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-4066.2018.04.007

15. Xu DD, Yin LH, Hou GC, Wang WK, Huang JT, Wang XY, et al. Relationships between Sap Flow Densities in Tree Trunks of Salix matsudana and Populus simonii and Meteorological Factors in the Mu Us Sand land[J]. Arid Zone Research, 2017;34(02):375–382. doi: 10.13866/j.azr.2017.02.19

16. Fan WH. Study on Water Consumption Characteristics of Three Typical Afforestational Trees in Mu Us Sandy[D]. Beijing Forestry University, 2012:1–76.

17. Xin ZM, Huang YR, Luo FM, Ge GBT, Li XL, Sun F, et al. Sap flow variation characteristics and its relationship with meteorological factors for Hippophae rthamnoides at fruit period[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 2015;29(11):202–207. doi: 10.13448/j.cnki.jalre.2015.387

18. Wang QM, Wang WK, Wang ZF, An KD, Chen L, Gong C. Transpiration of Salix psammophila and its response to meteorological factors in arid area[J]. South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science & Technology, 2015;13(04):771–775. doi: 10.13476/j.cnki.nsbdqk.2015.04.036

19. Pei ZY, Hao SR, Qiao JW, Duan GD, Wang GZ, Characteristics of stem flow of Salix psammophila’s branch in Mu Us Sand land [J]. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2019;28(1): 48–56. doi: 10.16258/j.cnki.1674-5906.2019.01.006

20. Yao YQ, Chen K, Wang YH, Wang YB, Li ZH, Xu LH, et al. Relationships between sap flow velocity of Larix principis-rupprechtii and environmental factors and their variation with time scales[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment,2017;31(02):155–161. doi: 10.13448/j.cnki.jalre.2017.060

21. Pei ZY, Qiao JW, Qin W, Duan GD, Hao SR, Wang GZ. Optimization of the sand barrier’s set mode during stumping convalescence of Salix psammophila protection belt on desert crossing highway[J]. Journal of Forestry Engineering,2019;4(4):127–134. doi: 10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.2019.04.019

22. Gao Y, Duan AW, Qiu XQ, Li XQ, Pauline U, Sun JS, et al. Modeling evapotranspiration in maize/soybean strip intercropping system with the evaporation and radiation interception by neighboring species model[J]. Agricultural Water Management. 2013, 128: 110–119. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2013.06.020

23. Huang L, Zhang ZS. Stem Sap Flow of Caragana korshinskii and Ar temisia ordosica in a Revegetated Desert Area[J]. Journal of Desert Research, 2011;31(3):683–688.

24. Yue GY, Zhang TH, Zhao HL, Niu L, Liu XP, Huang G. Characteristics of sap flow and transpiration of Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla in Horqin Sandy Land, northeast China[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2006;(10):3205–3213. doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000–0933.2006.10.006

25. Pan TH, Li HJ. Relationship Between Sap Flow Characteristics of Osmanthus Fragrans and Gardenia jasminodes and Environmental Factors[J]. Journal of Shanxi University (Nat. Sci. Ed), 2011;34(02):320–325. doi: 10.13451/j.cnki.shanxi.univ(nat.sci.).2011.02.023

26. Wei XG, Chen DY, Wang X, Wang YK, Wei XD. Time scale effect on main factors that influence jujube transpiration in hillside jujube orchard [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2014;30(17):149–156. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2014.17.020

27. Zhang J, Wang L. The Relationship Between the Evapotranspiration and the Environmental Factors in the Apple Orchards in the Loess Tableland Area [J]. SCIENTIA SILVAE SINICAE, 2018,54(03):29–38. doi: 10.11707/j.1001-7488.20180304

28. Guo Y, Dong Y, Dang HH, Dong J, Wei GX. Evapotranspiration and Transpiration of Maize in Two Time Scales and the Environmental Effects[J]. Resources Science, 2014,36(07):1501–1508.

29. Wu ZL, Zhou CJ, Zhou XN, Liu FW, Zhu QX Huang JY, et al. Difference in Soil Respiration Rates of the Mixed Plantations of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Broadleaved Trees 5 Years after Harvesting at Different Intensities[J]. SCIENTIA SILVAE SINICAE, 2019,55(06):142–149. doi: 10.11707/j.1001-7488.20190617

30. Xue JH. Forest Ecology[M]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 2009.pp.62–63.

31. Zhang J, Wang L, Han X, Zhang LS. The Relationship Between Sap Flow Velocity and Environmental Factors of the 19a Apple Trees on the Loess Plateau at Different Time Scales[J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2016;49(13):2583–2592. doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.13.014

32. Wang YB, Wang YH, Xiong W, Yao YQ, Zhang T, Li ZH. Variation in the Sap Flow Velocity of Larix principis-rupprechtii and Its Impact Factors in Different Slope Positions in a Semi-Arid Region of Liupan Mountains[J].Science Silvae Sincae,2017;53(06):10–20. doi: 10.11707/j.1001-7488.20170602

33. Wang YN, Cao GX, Wang YH, Xu LH, Zhang WJ, Wang Xj. Canopy transpiration of Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation and its impact factors in different slope locations at the south side of Liupan Mountains, China[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology,2018;29(05):1503–1514. doi: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.201805.006 29797883

34. Bosch DD, Marshall LK, Teskey R. Forest transpiration from sap flux density measurements in a Southeastern Coastal Plain riparian buffer system. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology,2014;187:72–82. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.12.002

35. Charles W, Thomas B, Christopher B, John C, David F. Effect of thinning, pruning and nitrogen fertiliser application on transpiration, photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in a young Eucalyptus nitens plantation. Forest Ecology and Management,2012;266:286–300.

36. Huang YQ, Li XK, Zhang ZF, He CX, Zhao P, Yao YM, et al. Seasonal changes in Cyclobalanopsis glauca transpiration and canopy stomatal conductance and their dependence on subterranean water and climatic factors in rocky karst terrain[J]. Journal of Hydrology,2011;402:135–143. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.03.013

37. Han L, Sun ZJ, Zhan XL, Jiao BZ, Dong L. Research on Leaf Transpiration Response to Soil Water Stress of Caragana korshinskii Kom. in He dong Sandy Land of Ningxia [J]. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2015; 24(5):756–761. doi: 10.16258/j.cnki.1674-5906.2015.05.005

38. Han L, Zhan XL, Wang F, Sun ZJ, Huang JY. Time lag effect between stem sap flow and driving factors of transpiration of Platycladus orientalis in east sandy land of Yellow River [J]. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2018;27(8):1417–1423. doi: 10.16258/j.cnki.1674-5906.2018.08.005

39. Guo Y, Ding GD, Wu B, Zhang YQ, Wei LW, Wang Z, et al. Research on Stem Sap Flow Dynamics of Hedysarum scoparium Fisch. Et Mey in Mu Us Sandy Area[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation,2010;24(05):110–113. doi: 10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2010.05.045

40. Liu L, Yao YF, Guo YF, Qi W, Yuchi WS, Han ZM, et al. Correlations between the transpiration water consumption of Hiooophae rhamnoides Linn. And environmental factors in soft sandstone area of Zhungeer[J]. Journal of China Agricultural University,2018;23(06):108–120. doi: 10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2018.06.13

41. Tang D, Wang H, Zhang T, Li SS, He KN. Relationships between Sap Flow Velocity of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. and Meteorological Factors in the Qaidam Basin[J].Arid Zone Research,2017;34(03):630–637. doi: 10.13866/j.azr.2017.03.20

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden