Self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout in post-secondary faculty: An international longitudinal analysis

Autoři: Nathan C. Hall aff001;  So Yeon Lee aff001;  Sonia Rahimi aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


To address the present research gap on relations between motivational beliefs, self-regulation failure, and psychological health in post-secondary faculty, the present study used associative latent growth modeling to longitudinally examine relationships between self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout (emotional exhaustion) in faculty internationally. Findings from 3,071 faculty participants (70% female, 69 countries) over three time points (5–6 month lags) showed greater self-efficacy at baseline to correspond with lower procrastination and burnout, and procrastination to be positively related to burnout (intercepts). Growth analyses additionally revealed stronger relations between increases in self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout over time (slopes). Supplemental cross-lagged analyses provided causal evidence of burnout as an antecedent of self-efficacy and procrastination, underscoring intervention and policy efforts to address overwork and exhaustion in post-secondary faculty.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Emotions – Global health – Mental health and psychiatry – Psychological stress – Research assessment – Research validity – Social research


1. Blix AG, Cruise RJ, Mitchell BM, Blix GG. Occupational stress among university teachers. Journal of Educational Research. 1994;36: 157–169.

2. Catano V, Francis L, Haines T, Kirpalani H, Shannon H, Stringer B, et al. Occupational stress in Canadian universities: A national survey. International Journal of Stress Management. 2010;17: 232–258.

3. Winefield AH, Boyd CM, Saebel J, Pignata S. Update on national university stress study. Australian Universities Review. 2008;50: 20–29.

4. Watts J, Robertson N. Burnout in university teaching: A systematic literature review. Journal of Educational Research. 2011;53: 33–50.

5. Gomes AR, Faria S, Gonçalves AM. Cognitive appraisal as a mediator in the relationship between stress and burnout. Work & Stress. 2013;27: 351–367.

6. Feldman KA, Paulsen MB. Faculty motivation: The role of supporting teaching culture. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 1999;78: 69–78.

7. Lee J. Instructional support for distance education and faculty motivation, commitment, satisfaction. British Journal of Educational Technology. 2002;32: 153–160.

8. Sabagh Z, Hall NC, Saroyan A. Antecedents, correlates, and consequences of faculty burnout. Educational Research. 2018;60: 1–26.

9. Salimzadeh R, Saroyan A, Hall NC. Examining the factors impacting academics’. psychological well-being: A review of research International Education Research. 2017;5: 13–44.

10. Morris DB, Usher EL. Developing teaching self-efficacy in research institutions: A study of award-winning professors. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2011;36: 232–245.

11. Stupnisky RH, BrckaLorenz A, Yuhas B, Guay F. Faculty members’ motivation for teaching and best practices: Testing a model based on self-determination theory across institution types. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2018;53: 15–26.

12. Perry RP, Clifton RA, Menec VH, Struthers CW, Menges RJ. Faculty in transition: A longitudinal analysis of perceived control and type of institution in the research productivity of newly hired faculty. Research in Higher Education. 2000;41: 165–194.

13. Stupnisky RH, Hall NC, Daniels LM, Mensah E. Testing a model of pretenure faculty members’ teaching and research success: Motivation as a mediator of balance, expectations, and collegiality. The Journal of Higher Education. 2017;88: 376–400.

14. Navarro MLA, Mas MB, Jiménez AML. Working conditions, burnout and stress symptoms in university professors: Validating a structural model of the mediating effect of perceived personal competence. The Spanish Journal of Psychology. 2010;13: 284–296. doi: 10.1017/s1138741600003863 20480697

15. Tümkaya S. Burnout and humor relationship among university lecturers. Humor. 2007;20: 73–92.

16. Ackerman DS, Gross BL. I can start that “JME” manuscript next week, can’t I? The task characteristics behind why faculty procrastinate. Journal of Marketing Education. 2007;29: 97–110.

17. Boice R. Procrastination, busyness, and bingeing. Behavior Research and Therapy. 1989;27: 605–611.

18. Hammond C. Integrating service and academic study: Faculty motivation and satisfaction in Michigan higher education. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. 1994;1: 21–28.

19. Hardré PL, Beesely AD, Miler RL, Pace TM. Faculty motivation to do research: Across disciplines in research-extensive universities. Journal of the Professoriate. 2011;5: 35–69.

20. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review. 1977;84: 191–215. doi: 10.1037//0033-295x.84.2.191 847061

21. Bandura A. Self-efficacy. In: Ramachaudra VS, editor. Encyclopedia of mental health. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1994. pp. 4–71.

22. Schunk DH, Pajares F. Self-efficacy theory. In: Wentzel KR, Wigfield A, editors. Handbook of motivation at school. New York: Routledge; 2009. pp. 35–53.

23. Sverdlik A, Hall NC, Hubbard KA, McAlpine L. The PhD experience: A review of the factors influencing doctoral students’ completion, achievement, and well-being. International Journal of Doctoral Studies. 2018;13: 361–388.

24. Klassen R, Tze VMC. Teachers’ self-efficacy, personality, and teaching effectiveness: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review. 2014;12: 59–76.

25. Visser-Wijnveen GJ, Stes A, Van Petegem P. Development and validation of a questionnaire measuring teachers’ motivations for teaching in higher education. Higher Education. 2012;64: 421–436.

26. Zhao J, McCormick J, Hoekman K. Idiocentrism-allocentrism and academics’ self-efficacy for research in Beijing universities. International Journal of Educational Management. 2008;22: 168–183.

27. Wyatt M, Dikilitaş K. English language teachers becoming more efficacious through research engagement at their Turkish university. Educational Action Research. 2016;24: 550–570.

28. Vasil L. Self-efficacy expectations and causal attributions for achievement among male and female university faculty. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 1992;41: 259–269.

29. Colbeck CL, Weaver LD. Faculty engagement in public scholarship: A motivation systems theory perspective. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement. 2008;12: 7–30.

30. Ellett CD, Demir K, Monsaas J. Science and mathematics faculty responses to a policy-based initiative: Change processes, self-efficacy beliefs, and department culture. Innovative Higher Education. 2015;40: 127–141.

31. Bailey JG. Academics’ motivation and self-efficacy for teaching and research. Higher Education Research & Development. 1999;18: 343–359.

32. Jegede PO. Factors in computer self-efficacy among Nigerian college of education teachers. Journal of Psychology in Africa. 2007;17: 39–44.

33. Hemmings BC, Kay R, Sharp J, Taylor C. A transnational comparison of lecturer self-efficacy. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 2012;36: 291–307.

34. Hemmings BC. Strengthening the teaching self-efficacy of early career academics. Issues in Educational Research. 2015. pp. 1–17.

35. Reyes-Cruz M del R, Perales-Escudero MD. Research self-efficacy sources and research motivation in a foreign language university faculty in Mexico: Implications for educational policy. Higher Education Research and Development. 2016;35: 800–814.

36. Schoen LG, Wincour S. An investigation of the self-efficacy of male and female academics. Journal of Vocational Behaviour. 1988;32: 307–320.

37. Hemmings BC, Kay R. Research self-efficacy, publication output, and early career development. International Journal of Educational Management. 2010;24: 562–574.

38. Landino RA, Owen SV. Self-efficacy in university faculty. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 1988;33: 1–14.

39. Klassen RM., Chiu MM. Effects on teachers' self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2010;102, 741–756.

40. Pinheiro SO, White HK, Buhr GT, Elbert-Avila K, Cohen HJ, Heflin MT. Advancing geriatrics education through a faculty development program for geriatrics-oriented clinician educators. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2015;63: 2580–2587. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13824 26563754

41. Postareff L, Lindblom-Ylanne S, Nevgi A. The effect of pedagogical training on teaching in higher education. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2007;23: 557–571.

42. Postareff L, Lindblom- Ylanne S, Nevgi A. A follow-up study of the effect of pedagogical training on teaching in higher education. Higher Education. 2008;56: 29–43.

43. Singh T, De Grave W, Ganjiwale J, Supe A, Burdick WP, Van Der Vleuten C. Impact of a fellowship program for faculty development on the self-efficacy beliefs of health professions teachers: A longitudinal study. Medical Teacher. 2013;35: 359–364. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.769672 23444892

44. Carnes M, Devine PG, Manwell LB, Byars-Winston A, Fine E, Ford CE. Effect of an intervention to break the gender bias habit: A cluster randomized, controlled trial. Academic Medicine. 2015;90: 221–230. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000552 25374039

45. Evans L, Tress MB. What drives research-focused university academics to want to teach effectively? Examining achievement, self-efficacy and self-esteem. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 2009;3: 12.

46. Zhang L, Fu M, Li DT, He Y. Emotions and teaching styles among academics: the mediating role of research and teaching efficacy. Educational Psychology. 2019;39: 370–394.

47. Hemmings BC, Kay R. The relationship between research self-efficacy. research disposition and publication output Educational Psychology. 2015;36: 347–361.

48. Pasupathy R, Siwatu KO. An investigation of research self-efficacy beliefs and research productivity among faculty members at an emerging research university in the USA. Higher Education Research & Development. 2014;33: 728–741.

49. Sharma M, Kaur G. Occupational self-efficiency and procrastination as predictors of occupational stress among female lectures. Journal of Psychosocial Research. 2013;8: 275–285.

50. Schunk DH, Greene JA, editors. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. 2nd Edition. New York: Routledge; 2017.

51. Hall NC, Goetz T, editors. Emotion, motivation, and self-regulation: A handbook for teachers. Bingley, UK: Emerald; 2013.

52. Zhang Q, Zhu W. Exploring emotion in teaching: Emotional labor, burnout, and satisfaction in Chinese higher education. Communication Education. 2018;57: 105–122.

53. Hill MB, Hill DA, Chabot AE, Barrall JF. A survey of college faculty and student procrastination. College Student Journal. 1978;12: 256–262.

54. Paden N, Stell R. Reducing procrastination through assignment and course design. Journal of Marketing Education Review. 1997;7: 17–25.

55. Ackerman DS, Gross BL. My instructor made me do it: Task characteristics of procrastination. Journal of Marketing Education. 2005;27: 5–13.

56. Balkis M, Duru E. The evaluation of the major characteristics and aspects of the procrastination in the framework of psychological counseling and guidance. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice. 2007;7: 376–385.

57. Steel P. The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin. 2007;133: 65–94. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65 17201571

58. Baumeister RF, Heatherton TF. Self-regulation failure: An overview. Psychological Inquiry. 1996;7: 1–15.

59. Howell AJ, Watson DC. Procrastination: Associations with achievement goal orientation and learning strategies. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007;43: 167–178.

60. Pychyl TA. Solving the procrastination puzzle: A concise guide to strategies for change. New York, NY: Tarcher/Penguin; 2013.

61. Tuckman BW. The development and concurrent validity of the procrastination scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1991;51: 473–480.

62. Ferrari JR. Procrastination as self-regulation failure of performance: Effects of cognitive load, self-awareness, and time limits on ‘working best under pressure.’ European Journal of Personality. 2001;15: 391–406.

63. Senécal C, Koestner R, Vallerand RJ. Self-regulation and academic procrastination. The Journal of Social Psychology. 1995;135: 607–619.

64. Balkis M, Duru E. Procrastination, self-regulation failure, academic life satisfaction, and affective well-being: Underregulation or misregulation form. European Journal of Psychology Education. 2016;31: 439–459.

65. Pychyl TA, Sirois FM. Procrastination, emotion regulation, and well-being. In: Sirois FM, Pychyl T, editors. Procrastination, health, and well-being. London, UK: Academic Press; 2016. pp. 163–188.

66. Sirois F, Pychyl T. Procrastination and the priority of short‐term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 2013;7: 115–127.

67. Balkis M, Duru E, Bulus M. Analysis of the relation between academic procrastination, academic rational/irrational beliefs, time preferences to study for exams, and academic achievement: A structural model. European Journal of Psychology of Education. 2013;28: 825–839.

68. Gareau A, Chamandy M, Klijajic K, Gaudreau P. The detrimental effect of academic procrastination on subsequent grades: the mediating role of coping over and above past achievement and working memory capacity. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 2018;32: 141–154.

69. Kim KR, Seo EH. The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences. 2015;82: 26–33.

70. Klassen RM, Krawchuk LL, Rajani S. Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2008;33: 915–931.

71. Klassen RM, Ang RP, Chong WH, Krawchuk LL, Huan VS, Wong IY, et al. Academic procrastination in two settings: Motivation correlates, behavioral patterns, and negative impact of procrastination in Canada and Singapore. Applied Psychology. 2010;59: 361–379.

72. Schraw G, Wadkins T, Olafson L. Doing the things we do: A grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2007;99: 12–25.

73. Pychyl TA, Lee JM, Thibodeau R, Beck A. Five days of emotion: An experience sampling study of undergraduate student procrastination. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. 2000;15: 239–254.

74. Tice DM., Baumeister RF. Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science. 1997;8: 454–458.

75. Boice R. Professors as writers: A self-help guide to productive writing. Stillwater, OK: New: Forums Press; 1990.

76. Rozental A, Carlbring P. Understanding and treating procrastination: A review of a common self-regulatory failure. Psychology. 2014;4: 1488–1502.

77. Cerino ES. Relationships between academic motivation, self-efficacy, and academic procrastination. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research. 2014;19: 156–163.

78. Haycock LA, McCarthy P, Skay CL. Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD. 1998;76: 317–324.

79. Hensley LC. Reconsidering active procrastination: Relations to motivation and achievement in college anatomy. Learning and Individual Differences. 2014;36: 157–164.

80. Schwerdtfeger A, Konermann L, Schonhofen K. Self-efficacy as a health-protective resource in teachers? A biopsychological approach. Health Psychology. 2008;27: 358–368. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.3.358 18624601

81. Skaalvik EM, Skaalvik S. Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2010;26: 1059–1069.

82. Wang H, Hall NC, Rahimi S. Self-efficacy and causal attributions in teachers: Effects on burnout, job satisfaction, illness, and quitting intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2015;47: 120–130.

83. Ariani DW, Susilo YS. Why do it later? Goal orientation, self-efficacy, test anxiety, on procrastination. Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies. 2018;17: 45–73.

84. Constantin K, English MM, Mazmanian D. Anxiety, depression, and procrastination among students: rumination plays a larger mediating role than worry. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. 2018;36: 15–27.

85. Glick DM, Millstein DJ, Orsillo SM. A preliminary investigation of the role of psychological inflexibility in academic procrastination. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. 2014;3: 81–88.

86. Macher D, Paechter M, Papousek I, Ruggeri K. Statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, learning behavior, and academic performance. European Journal of Psychology of Education. 2012;27: 483–498.

87. Onwuegbuzie AJ. Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 2004;29: 3–19.

88. Hall NC. @AcademicsSay: The Story Behind a Social-Media Experiment. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2015 Jul 1. [Cited 2019 Dec 17]. Available from:

89. Hall NC. The SAS Project: A case study of motivation research recruitment via social media. Paper presented at: Conference on Motivation and Social Perception; 2016 Jul 19–21; Gdansk.

90. Hall NC. @AcademicsSay: A case study in faculty engagement via Twitter. Paper presented at: American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting; 2017 Apr 27-May 1; San Antonio.

91. Steel P. Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist? Personality and Individual Differences. 2010;48: 926–934.

92. McCown W, Johnson J. Differential arousal gradients in chronic procrastination. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Alexandria, VA; 1989.

93. Mann L, Burnett P, Radford M, Ford S. The Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire: An instrument for measuring patterns for coping with decisional conflict. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 1997;10: 1–19.

94. Lay CH. At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality. 1986;20: 474–495.

95. Diener E, Emmons RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S. The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1985;49: 71–75. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13 16367493

96. Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP. Maslach burnout inventory manual. Mountain View. 3rd ed. California: CPP, Inc; 1996.

97. Frisby BN, Goodboy AK, Buckner MM. Students’ instructional dissent and relationships with faculty members’ burnout, commitment, satisfaction, and efficacy. Communication Education. 2015;64: 1–18.

98. Poghosyan L, Aiken LH, Sloane DM. Factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: An analysis of data from large scale cross-sectional surveys of nurses from eight countries. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2009;46: 894–902. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.03.004 19362309

99. Goodman JS, Blum TC. Assessing the non-random sampling effects of subject attrition in longitudinal research. Journal of Management. 1996;22: 627–652.

100. Li E, Duncan TE, C. DS, Acock A. Latent growth modeling of longitudinal data: A finite growth mixture modeling approach. Structural Equation Modeling. 2001;8: 493–530.

101. Byrne BM. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge; 2016.

102. Duncan TE, Duncan SC, Strycker LA. An introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling: Concepts, issues, and application. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge; 2013.

103. Byrne BM. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Routledge; 2010.

104. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Evaluating model fit. In: Hoyle RH, editor. Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1995. pp. 76–99.

105. Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ. Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. 3rd ed. Thousand. Oaks, CA: Sage; 2016.

106. Bandalos DL. The effect of item parceling on goodness-of-fit and parameter estimate bias in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling. 2002;9: 78–102.

107. Little TD, Cunningham WA, Shahar G, Widaman KF. To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling. 2002;9: 151–173.

108. Prentice DA, Miller DT. When small effects are impressive. Psychological Bulletin. 1992;112: 160–164.

109. Marsh HW. Academic self-concept: Theory measurement and research. In: Suls J, editor. Psychological perspectives on the self. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1993. pp. 59–98.

110. Duncan SC, Duncan TE. Modeling incomplete longitudinal substance use data using latent variable growth curve methodology. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 1994;29: 313–338. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr2904_1 26745232

111. Lutter M, Schröder M. Who becomes a tenured professor and why? Panel data evidence from German sociology, 1980–2013. Research Policy. 2016;45: 999–1013.

112. Seaman J, Tinti-Kane H. Social media for teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions; 2013.

113. Zhou H, Fishbach A. The pitfall of experimenting on the web: How unattended selective attrition leads to surprising (yet false) research conclusions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2016:111:493–504. doi: 10.1037/pspa0000056 27295328

114. Van Noorden R. Online collaboration: Scientists and the social network. Nature. 2014:512: 126–129. doi: 10.1038/512126a 25119221

115. Casler K, Bickel L, Hackett E. Separate but equal? A comparison of participants and data gathered via Amazon’s MTurk, social media, and face-to-face behavioral testing. Computers in Human Behavior. 2013:29: 2156–2160.

116. Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Nachreiner F, Schaufeli WB. The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2001;86: 499–512. 11419809

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden