Personal distress as a mediator between self-esteem, self-efficacy, loneliness and problematic video gaming in female and male emerging adult gamers

Autoři: Andrzej Cudo aff001;  Natalia Kopiś aff001;  Emilia Zabielska-Mendyk aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Experimental Psychology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226213


The aim of our research was to investigate the predictors of Problematic Video Gaming (PVG) in emerging adulthood. From among the factors which were considered significant in previous studies, we decided to include the following in our research: empathy, self-esteem, self-efficacy and loneliness. Additionally, we wanted to examine which predictors have a direct or indirect effect on PVG in female and male emerging adult gamers group. Including a sample of 370 video game players (201 female gamers) aged 18–30 years (M = 21.66 years, SD = 2.83) participated in this study and were asked to complete self-report measures. The questionnaires included: Problem Videogame Playing Questionnaire, The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale. Our results indicate that empathy dimension associated with personal distress, the time spent playing computer games per week is directly associated with PVG. Also, there were found full mediation between self-esteem, loneliness, self-efficacy and PVG via personal distress in emerging adult male gamers group. In emerging adult female gamers group personal distress fully mediated relation between self-esteem, self-efficacy and PVG. Our findings indicate that the time spent playing video games, as well as personal distress as a function of self-esteem, loneliness and self-efficacy, are predictors of problematic video gaming. Additionally, our results may lead to a better understanding of PVG among emerging adults. In particular, they may point to the importance of personal distress in relation to PVG during emerging adulthood, which is a developmental stage of many changes in social and professional life.

Klíčová slova:

Adults – Behavior – Emotions – Games – Internet – Interpersonal relationships – Psychometrics – Video games


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