Antiphagocytic protein 1 increases the susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to amphotericin B and fluconazole

Autoři: Muhammad Ghaffar aff001;  Cody Orr aff001;  Ginny Webb aff001
Působiště autorů: Division of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of South Carolina Upstate, Spartanburg, South Carolina, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for the most common cause of fungal meningioencephalitis, occurring primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Antiphagocytic protein 1 (App1) is a virulence factor produced by C. neoformans that inhibits phagocytosis of the yeast by host macrophages. Treatment of cryptococcosis includes amphotericin B, fluconazole, and flucytosine. Virulence factors have been shown to affect the susceptibility of the pathogen to antifungal drugs. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between App1 and antifungal drugs. We found that short-term exposure to amphotericin B downregulates APP1 expression while exposure to fluconazole upregulates APP1. In addition, App1 was found to increase the susceptibility of the yeast to amphotericin B and fluconazole. This study provides evidence of an intricate relationship between App1 and antifungal drugs.

Klíčová slova:

Amphotericin – Antifungals – Cryptococcus neoformans – Drug therapy – Fungal pathogens – Gene expression – Phagocytosis – Virulence factors


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2019 Číslo 12
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