Quantitative assessment of fecal contamination in multiple environmental sample types in urban communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh using SaniPath microbial approach


Autoři: Nuhu Amin aff001;  Mahbubur Rahman aff001;  Suraja Raj aff002;  Shahjahan Ali aff001;  Jamie Green aff002;  Shimul Das aff001;  Solaiman Doza aff001;  Momenul Haque Mondol aff001;  Yuke Wang aff002;  Mohammad Aminul Islam aff004;  Mahbub-Ul Alam aff001;  Tarique Md. Nurul Huda aff001;  Sabrina Haque aff006;  Leanne Unicomb aff001;  George Joseph aff006;  Christine L. Moe aff002
Působiště autorů: Infectious Disease Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh aff001;  Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff002;  Department of Statistics, University of Barishal, Barishal, Bangladesh aff003;  Laboratory Sciences and Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh aff004;  Paul G Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America aff005;  Water Global Practice, The World Bank, Washington DC, United States of America aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221193

Souhrn

Rapid urbanization has led to a growing sanitation crisis in urban areas of Bangladesh and potential exposure to fecal contamination in the urban environment due to inadequate sanitation and poor fecal sludge management. Limited data are available on environmental fecal contamination associated with different exposure pathways in urban Dhaka. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the magnitude of fecal contamination in the environment in low-income, high-income, and transient/floating neighborhoods in urban Dhaka. Ten samples were collected from each of 10 environmental compartments in 10 different neighborhoods (4 low-income, 4 high-income and 2 transient/floating neighborhoods). These 1,000 samples were analyzed with the IDEXX-Quanti-Tray technique to determine most-probable-number (MPN) of E. coli. Samples of open drains (6.91 log10 MPN/100 mL), surface water (5.28 log10 MPN/100 mL), floodwater (4.60 log10 MPN/100 mL), produce (3.19 log10 MPN/serving), soil (2.29 log10 MPN/gram), and street food (1.79 log10 MPN/gram) had the highest mean log10 E. coli contamination compared to other samples. The contamination concentrations did not differ between low-income and high-income neighborhoods for shared latrine swabs, open drains, municipal water, produce, and street foodsamples. E. coli contamination levels were significantly higher (p <0.05) in low-income neighborhoods compared to high-income for soil (0.91 log10 MPN/gram, 95% CI, 0.39, 1.43), bathing water (0.98 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.41, 1.54), non-municipal water (0.64 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.24, 1.04), surface water (1.92 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 1.44, 2.40), and floodwater (0.48 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.92) samples. E. coli contamination were significantly higher (p<0.05) in low-income neighborhoods compared to transient/floating neighborhoods for drain water, bathing water, non-municipal water and surface water. Future studies should examine behavior that brings people into contact with the environment and assess the extent of exposure to fecal contamination in the environment through multiple pathways and associated risks.

Klíčová slova:

Flooding – Neighborhoods – Sanitation – Surface water – Urban environments – Water management – Water pollution – Water resources


Zdroje

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