A submerged 7000-year-old village and seawall demonstrate earliest known coastal defence against sea-level rise


Autoři: Ehud Galili aff001;  Jonathan Benjamin aff002;  Vered Eshed aff003;  Baruch Rosen aff004;  John McCarthy aff002;  Liora Kolska Horwitz aff005
Působiště autorů: Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel aff001;  Maritime Archaeology Program, College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia aff002;  Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem, Israel aff003;  Independent researcher, Kaplanski St. 26 Petah Tikva, Israel aff004;  National Natural History Collections, Faculty of Life Science, The Hebrew University, E. Safra Campus, Jerusalem, Israel aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222560

Souhrn

We report the results of underwater archaeological investigations at the submerged Neolithic settlement of Tel Hreiz (7500 – 7000 BP), off the Carmel coast of Israel. The underwater archaeological site has yielded well-preserved architectural, artefactual, faunal and human remains. We examine and discuss the notable recent discovery of a linear, boulder-built feature >100m long, located seaward of the settlement. Based on archaeological context, mode of construction and radiometric dating, we demonstrate the feature was contemporary with the inundated Neolithic settlement and conclude that it served as a seawall, built to protect the village against Mediterranean Sea-level rise. The seawall is unique for the period and is the oldest known coastal defence worldwide. Its length, use of large non-local boulders and specific arrangement in the landscape reflect the extensive effort invested by the Neolithic villagers in its conception, organisation and construction. However, this distinct social action and display of resilience proved a temporary solution and ultimately the village was inundated and abandoned.

Klíčová slova:

Archaeological dating – Archaeology – Built structures – Cattle – Culture – Neolithic period – Paleoanthropology – Radioactive carbon dating


Zdroje

1. Bicho N, Haws JA, Davis LG. editors. Trekking the Shore. Changing Coastlines and the Antiquity of Coastal Settlement. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2011.

2. Cortés-Sánchez M, Morales-Muñiz A, Simón-Vallejo MD, Lozano-Francisco MC, Vera-Peláez JL, Finlayson C, et al. Earliest known use of marine resources by Neanderthals. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(9): e24026. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024026 21935371

3. Marean CW. The origins and significance of coastal resource use in Africa and Western Eurasia. J. Hum. Evol. 2014; 77: 17–40. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.02.025 25498601

4. Fischer A, Pedersen L. editors. Oceans of Archaeology. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press; 2018.

5. See papers in Torrence R, Grattan J. editors. Natural Disasters and Cultural Change. London: Routledge; 2002.

6. Benjamin J, Bonsall C, Pickard C, Fischer A. editors. Submerged Prehistory Oxford: Oxbow Books; 2011.

7. Evans AM, Flatman JC, Flemming NC. editors. Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer; 2014.

8. Bailey G, Harff J, Sakellariou D. editors. Under the Sea: Archaeology and Palaeolandscapes of the Continental Shelf. London: Springer International; 2017.

9. Masters PM, Flemming NC. editors. Quaternary Coastlines and Marine Archaeology. London: Academic Press; 1983.

10. Raban A, Galili E. Recent maritime archaeological research in Israel — a preliminary report. Int. J. Nautl. Archaeol. 1985; 14: 321–356.

11. Benjamin J, Rovere A, Fontana A, Furlani S, Vacchi M, Inglis RH, et al. Late Quaternary sea-level changes and early human societies in the central and eastern Mediterranean Basin: An interdisciplinary review. Quat. Int. 2017; 449: 29–57.

12. Galili E, Benjamin J, Hershkovitz I, Weinstein-Evron M, Zohar I, Eshed V, et al. Atlit-Yam: A Unique 9000 year old prehistoric village submerged off the Carmel coast, Israel – the SPLASHCOS Field School. In: Bailey G, Harff J, Sakellariou D. editors. Under the Sea: Archaeology and Palaeolandscapes (. London: Springer International; 2017. pp 85–102.

13. Galili E, Nir Y, Vachtman D, Mart Y. In: Flemming NC, Harff J, Moura D, Burgess A, Bailey GN. editors. Submerged Landscapes of the European Continental Shelf: Quaternary Paleoenvironments. London: Wiley Blackwell; COST European Cooperation in Science and Technology; 2017. pp. 377–403.

14. Galili E, Weinstein-Evron M, Ronen A. Holocene sea-level changes based on submerged archaeological sites off the northern Carmel coast in Israel. Quat. Res. 1988; 29: 36–42.

15. Galili E, Zviely D, Weinstein-Evron M. Holocene sea-level changes and landscape evolution on the northern Carmel coast (Israel). Mediterranèe 2005; 1(2): 1–8.

16. Galili E, Zviely D. Geo-archaeological markers reveal magnitude and rates of Israeli coastal cliff erosion and retreat. J. Coastal Conserv. 2018: 1–12

17. Galili E, Weinstein-Evron M, Hershkovitz I, Gopher A, Kislev M, Lernau O, et al. Atlit-Yam: a prehistoric site on the sea floor off the Israeli coast. J. Field Archaeol. 1993; 20: 133–156.

18. Galili E, Rosen B, Gopher A, Horwitz LK. The emergence and dispersion of the Eastern Mediterranean fishing village: Evidence from submerged Neolithic settlements off the Carmel coast, Israel. J. Med. Archaeol. 2002; 15: 167–198.

19. Galili E, Horwitz LK, Hershkovitz I, Eshed V, Salamon A, Zviely D, et al. Comment on “Holocene tsunamis from Mount Etna and the fate of Israeli Neolithic communities” by Maria Teresa Pareschi, Enzo Boschi, and Massimiliano Favalli. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2008; 35: L08311.

20. Wreschner EE. The submerged village “Newe-Yam” on the Israeli Mediterranean Coast. In: Masters PM, Flemming NC. editors. Quaternary Coastlines and Marine Archaeology. London: Academic Press; 1983 pp. 325–333.

21. Galili E, Horwitz LK, Eshed V, Rosen B, Hershkovitz I. Submerged prehistoric settlements off the Mediterranean Coast of Israel. Skyllis 2013; 13, 181–204.

22. Galili E., Horwitz L.K, Rosen B, Eshed V. Submerged Pottery Neolithic settlements off the coast of Israel: Subsistence, material culture and the development of separate burial grounds. In: Bailey GN, Harff J, Sakellariou D. editors. Under the Sea: Archaeology and Palaeolandscapes of the Continental Shelf, London: Springer International; 2017. pp. 105–130.

23. Ronen A. Underwater state-wide survey. Bimtzulot Yam 1965; 3-4, 5 (in Hebrew).

24. Galili E, Horwitz LK, Rosen B. The “Israeli Model” for the detection, excavation and research of submerged prehistory. TINA - Maritime Archaeology Periodical 2019; 10: 31–69.

25. Segal D, Carmi I. Rehovot radiocarbon date list VI. ‘Atiqot 1996; 48: 123–148.

26. Galili E, Stanley DJ, Sharvit J, Weinstein-Evron M. Evidence for earliest olive-oil production in submerged settlements off the Carmel coast, Israel. J. Arch. Sci. 1997; 24: 1141–1150.

27. Horwitz LK, Galili E, Sharvit J, Lernau O. Fauna from five submerged Pottery Neolithic sites off the Carmel coast. J. Isr. Prehist. Soc. 2002; 32: 147–174.

28. Gopher A, Gophna R. The Pottery Neolithic of the southern Levant (the eighth and seventh millennia BP in the southern Levant: a review for the 1990s. J. of World Prehist. 1993; 7: 297–353.

29. Banning E B. Wadi Rabah and related assemblages in the southern Levant: interpreting the radiocarbon evidence. Paléorient 2007; 33: 77–101.

30. Hunt IA. Design of sea-walls and breakwaters. Trans. Am. Soc. Civil Engineers 1959; 126: 542–570.

31. Tallet P. Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf. Brit. Mus. Stud. Ancient Egypt and Sudan 2012; 18: 147–68.

32. Franco L. Ancient Mediterranean harbours: a heritage to preserve. Ocean Coast. Manag. 1996; 30: 115–151.

33. Oleson JP, Hohlfelder RL. Ancient harbors in the Mediterranean. In: Ford B, Hamilton DL, Catsambis A. editors. The Oxford Handbook of Maritime Archaeology, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011. pp. 809–833.

34. Marriner N, Morhange C, Kaniewski D, Carayon N. Ancient harbour infrastructure in the Levant: Tracking the birth and rise of new forms of anthropogenic pressure. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 5554. doi: 10.1038/srep05554 24989979

35. Viret J. Les “murs de mer” de la côte Levantine. Mediteranèe 2005; 1-2: 15–24.

36. Morhange C, Marriner N, Carayon N. The eco-history of ancient Mediterranean harbours. In: Bekker-Nielse T, Gertwagen R. editors, The Inland Seas, Towards an Ecohistory of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, Gertwagen, Ruthy: Franz Steiner Verlag; 2016. pp. 85–107.

37. Frost H. Harbours and proto-harbours: early Levantine engineering. In: Karageorghis V, Michaelides D. editors. Proceedings of the International Symposium 'Cyprus and the Sea', Cyprus: University of Cyprus; 1995. pp 1–21.

38. Elfrink B, Baldock TE. Hydrodynamics and sediment transport in the swash zone: a review and perspectives. Coastal Eng. 2002; 45: 149–167.

39. Masselink G, Puleo JA. Swash-zone morphodynamics. Cont. Shelf Res. 2006; 26: 661–680.

40. Guard PA, Baldock TE. The influence of seaward boundary conditions on swash zone hydrodynamics. Coastal Eng. 2007; 54: 321–331.

41. Horn DP, Mason T. Swash zone sediment transport modes. Marine Geol. 1994; 120 (3-4): 309–325.

42. Butt T, Russell P. Sediment transport mechanisms in high energy swash. Marine Geol. 1999; 161: 361–375.

43. Puleo JA, Beach RA, Holman RA, Allen JS. Swash zone sediment suspension and transport and the importance of bore-generated turbulence. J. Geophys. Res. 2000; 105 (C7), 17021– 17044.

44. Masselink G, Puleo JA. Swash-zone morphodynamics. Cont. Shelf Res. 2006; 26 (5): 661–680.

45. Bar-Yosef O. The walls of Jericho: an alternative interpretation. Curr. Anthropol. 1986; 27 (2): 157–162.

46. Fujii S. Wadi Abu Tulayha and Wadi Ruweishid ash-Sharqi: an investigation of PPNB barrage systems in the Jafr Basin. Neo-Lithics 2007; 2: 6–17.

47. Galili E, Rosen B. Submerged Neolithic settlements off the Mediterranean Carmel coast of Israel and water mining in the southern Levant. Neo-Lithics 2011; 2: 47–52.

48. Bruins J. Ancient desert agriculture in the Negev and climate-zone boundary changes during average, wet and drought years. J. Arid Envir. 2012; 86: 28–42.

49. Kuijt I, Finlayson B, MacKay J. Pottery Neolithic landscape modification at Dhra’. Antiquity 2007; 81; 106–118.

50. Maslin MA, Christensen B. Tectonics, orbital forcing, global climate change, and human evolution in Africa: introduction to the African paleoclimate. J Hum Evol. 2007; 53: 443–464. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.06.005 17915289

51. Tierney JE, deMenocal PB, Zander PD. A climatic context for the out-of-Africa migration. Geology 2017; 45 (11): 1023–1026.

52. Van de Noort R. Climate Change Archaeology: Building Resilience from Research on the World’s Coastal Wetlands 2013; Oxford: Oxford University Press.

53. Martini IP, Chesworth W. editors. Landscapes and Societies, 2010; Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

54. Chiotis E. editor. Climate Changes in the Holocene Impacts and Human Adaptation. 2019; Boca Raton, CRC Press.

55. Bar-Yosef O. Climatic fluctuations and early farming in West and East Asia, Curr. Anthropol. 2011; 52 (S4): S175–S193.

56. Biehl PF, Nieuwenhuyse OP. editors. Climate and Cultural Change in Prehistoric Europe and the Near East. 2016; Albany, State University of New York Press.

57. Herrle JO, Bollmann J, Gebühr C, Schulz H, Sheward RM, Giesenberg A. Black Sea outflow response to Holocene meltwater events. Sci. Rep. 2018; 8 (1): 4081. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22453-z 29511255

58. Eshed V, Gopher A. Agriculture and life style: A paleodemography of Pottery Neolithic (8500-6500 cal. BP) farming populations in the Southern Levant, Paléorient 2018; 44.2: 93–111.

59. Church JA, White NJ. Sea-level rise from the late 19th to the early 21st century. Surv. Geophys. 2011; 32: 585–602.

60. Dangendorf S, Marcos S, Woppelmann G, Conrad CP, Frederikse T, Riva REM. Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea-level rise. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2017; 114 (23): 5946–5951. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1616007114 28533403


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 12