Expanded eligibility for HIV testing increases HIV diagnoses—A cross-sectional study in seven health facilities in western Kenya

Autoři: Rachael H. Joseph aff001;  Paul Musingila aff001;  Fredrick Miruka aff001;  Stella Wanjohi aff002;  Caroline Dande aff003;  Polycarp Musee aff004;  Fillet Lugalia aff005;  Dickens Onyango aff006;  Eunice Kinywa aff006;  Gordon Okomo aff007;  Iscah Moth aff007;  Samuel Omondi aff008;  Caren Ayieko aff008;  Lucy Nganga aff009;  Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez aff009;  Hellen Muttai aff001;  Kevin M. De Cock aff009
Působiště autorů: Division of Global HIV&TB, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kisumu, Kenya aff001;  HIV Prevention and Community Services, Center for Health Solutions, Kisumu, Kenya aff002;  HIV Testing and Counseling Services, University of California, San Francisco (FACES), Kisumu, Kenya aff003;  HIV Testing and Counseling Services, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Homa Bay, Kenya aff004;  HIV Testing and Counseling Services, Columbia University, ICAP, Kisumu, Kenya aff005;  Kisumu County Department of Health, County Government of Kisumu, Kisumu, Kenya aff006;  Homa Bay County Department of Health, County Government of Homa Bay, Homa Bay, Kenya aff007;  Siaya County Department of Health, County Government of Siaya, Siaya, Kenya aff008;  Division of Global HIV&TB, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya aff009
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225877


Homa Bay, Siaya, and Kisumu counties in western Kenya have the highest estimated HIV prevalence (16.3–21.0%) in the country, and struggle to meet program targets for HIV testing services (HTS). The Kenya Ministry of Health (MOH) recommends annual HIV testing for the general population. We assessed the degree to which reducing the interval for retesting to less than 12 months increased diagnosis of HIV in outpatient departments (OPD) in western Kenya. We conducted a retrospective analysis of routinely collected program data from seven high-volume (>800 monthlyOPD visits) health facilities in March–December, 2017. Data from persons ≥15 years of age seeking medical care (patients) in the OPD and non-care-seekers (non-patients) accompanying patients to the OPD were included. Outcomes were meeting MOH (routine) criteria versus criteria for a reduced retesting interval (RRI) of <12 months, and HIV test result. STATA version 14.2 was used to calculate frequencies and proportions, and to test for differences using bivariate analysis. During the 9-month period, 119,950 clients were screened for HIV testing eligibility, of whom 79% (94,766) were eligible and 97% (92,153) received a test. Among 92,153 clients tested, the median age was 28 years, 57% were female and 40% (36,728) were non-patients. Overall, 20% (18,120) of clients tested met routine eligibility criteria: 4% (3,972) had never been tested, 10% (9,316) reported a negative HIV test in the past >12 months, and 5% (4,832) met other criteria. The remaining 80% (74,033) met criteria for a RRI of < 12 months. In total 1.3% (1,185) of clients had a positive test. Although the percent yield was over 2-fold higher among those meeting routine criteria (2.4% vs. 1.0%; p<0.001), 63% (750) of all HIV infections were found among clients tested less than 12 months ago, the majority (81%) of whom reported having a negative test in the past 3–12 months. Non-patients accounted for 45% (539) of all HIV-positive persons identified. Percent yield was higher among non-patients as compared to patients (1.5% vs. 1.2%; p-value = <0.001) overall and across eligibility criteria and age categories. The majority of HIV diagnoses in the OPD occurred among clients reporting a negative HIV test in the past 12 months, clients ineligible for testing under the current MOH guidelines. Nearly half of all HIV-positive individuals identified in the OPD were non-patients. Our findings suggest that in the setting of a generalized HIV epidemic, retesting persons reporting an HIV-negative test in the past 3–12 months, and routine testing of non-patients accessing the OPD are key strategies for timely diagnosis of persons living with HIV.

Klíčová slova:

HIV clinical manifestations – HIV diagnosis and management – HIV epidemiology – HIV infections – Kenya – Medical risk factors


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Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12