Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients on second-line antiretroviral therapy at two hospitals in Western Oromia, Ethiopia

Autoři: Nuguse Geda aff001;  Tafese Beyene aff002;  Regea Dabsu aff001;  Hylemariam Mihiretie Mengist aff003
Působiště autorů: Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia aff001;  Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Arsi University, Assela, Ethiopia aff002;  Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article



Cryptococcosis is a global public health important infectious disease. HIV infection is the main risk factor estimated to account for 95% of cases in the middle- and low-income countries and 80% of the cases in high-income countries.


The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) among HIV/AIDS Patients on second-line ART Therapy at Ambo General Hospital and Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

Materials and methods

Hospital-based cross-sectional study was employed from September 1, 2017, to October 30, 2017. Whole blood was tested for CrAg using Cryptococcal lateral flow assay (Immuno-Mycologics, Norman, OK, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between predictors and outcome variables at 95% CI.


Among the study participants, 115(62.8%) were females and the median age of the participants was 35 (IQR: 14) years. Majority, 169(92.3%), have been living with HIV for ≥ 5.6 years and 124 (67.8%) stayed on 2nd line ART for an average of 2.5 years. The overall prevalence of Cryptococcal antigenemia in the study participants was 7.7% (14/183). Being male [AOR, 95% CI: 4.78(1.14, 20.1)], poor adherence to ART [AOR, 95% CI: 0.12(0.03, 0.4)], occupational exposures to contaminated soil [AOR, 95% CI: 6.81(1.38, 33.4)], having non-separated house from chickens [AOR, 95% CI: 0.06(0.01, 0.51)], CD4 T+ cell levels ≤ 100 cell/μL [AOR, 95% CI: 6.57(1.9, 23.3)] and viral load >1000 copies/mL [AOR, 95% CI: 11.7(2.4, 57.8)] were significant predictors of Cryptococcal antigenemia (P≤ 0.05).


The prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia was significantly high in this study. Being male, occupational exposure to contaminated soil with avian droppings, CD4+ T cell levels <100 cell/μL and viral load >1000 copies/mL were significant predictors of Cryptococcal antigenemia. Therefore, public health measures, adherence to ART and early treatment are recommended.

Klíčová slova:

Cryptococcus – Opportunistic infections – T cells – Viral load – Cryptococcosis – Cryptococcal meningitis


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2019 Číslo 12
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