Immunological recovery, failure and factors associated with CD-4 T-cells progression over time, among adolescents and adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy in Northern Ethiopia: A retrospective cross sectional study

Autoři: Abraham Aregay Desta aff001;  Tewolde Wubayehu Woldearegay aff001;  Asfawosen Aregay Berhe aff001;  Nesredin Futwi aff001;  Goyitom Gebremedhn Gebru aff001;  Hagos Godefay aff002
Působiště autorů: Tigray Health Research Institute, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia aff001;  Tigray Regional Health Bureau, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226293



This study was aimed to assess immunological recovery, failure, and factors associated with CD-4 T-cells progression over time, among adolescents and adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy in Northern Ethiopia.


A retrospective cross sectional study was done on 19,525 HIV patients on ART. Data were collected using a data retrieval checklist from a database. All eligible data in the database were exported to Microsoft excel 2010 and then data verification and filtration were done before exporting to STATA 14.0 for analysis. Factors associated with recent CD-4 count were modeled by using Generalized Linear Model poison family.


Among the patients with advanced HIV infection (< 200 CD-4 T-cell/ mm3) at baseline, only 28.35%, 95% CI (27.45–29.26) of them had immunological recovery (≥ 500 T-cells/mm3). Only 2.14%, 95%CI (1.94%- 2.35%) of the patients had immunological failure. Baseline CD-4 count (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.0007, 95%CI = 1.00069–1.00078), patients from military health care facility (IRR = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.06–1.16), good adherence (IRR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.04–1.21) and viral load suppression (IRR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.28–1.33) were positively associated with recent CD-4 count in the full model. Whereas, being male (IRR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.83–0.86), patients with on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) regimen of 1e (TDF-3TC-EFV), 2f (AZT-3TC-ATV/r), and 2h (TDF-3TC-ATV/r) (IRR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.91–0.94), (IRR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.55–0.76) and (IRR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.63–0.81) respectively were negatively associated with the recent CD-4 count in the full model.


Immunological recovery was achieved by 1/3 of the patients despite being on highly active ART (HAART). Therefore, intensive adherence counseling, follow-up and support should be focused on patients with viral non suppression to enhance immunological recovery.

Klíčová slova:

Ethiopia – Health care facilities – HIV infections – T cells – Viral load – Military medicine


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2019 Číslo 12