High prevalence and incidence of rectal Chlamydia infection among men who have sex with men in Japan

Autoři: Daisuke Mizushima aff001;  Misao Takano aff001;  Haruka Uemura aff001;  Yasuaki Yanagawa aff001;  Takahiro Aoki aff001;  Koji Watanabe aff001;  Hiroyuki Gatanaga aff001;  Yoshimi Kikuchi aff001;  Shinichi Oka aff001
Působiště autorů: AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220072



Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections have been neglected and epidemiological data are unavailable in Japan. Thus, we evaluated the prevalence and incidence of rectal CT/NG in a cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM), which was established at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM), in Tokyo, Japan, in January 2017.


HIV-negative MSM aged ≥16 years old were included. The prevalence of rectal CT/NG among HIV-negative MSM was compared with that among an existing HIV-positive MSM cohort at NCGM. The HIV-negative MSM cohort was examined for rectal and pharyngeal CT/NG every 3 months. Urethral CT/NG was evaluated at the physician’s discretion. The incidences of CT/NG were evaluated in December 2018.


Of 502 MSM initially included in this study, 13 men were diagnosed with HIV infection at enrollment and were subsequently excluded from the analysis. We evaluated 561 HIV-positive MSM for rectal CT/NG. The mean ages of the two cohorts were 33.6 and 46.2 years old, respectively (p<0.001). The prevalences of rectal CT were 16.4% and 15.9% (p = 0.707) and the prevalences of rectal NG were 4.1% and 2.3% (p = 0.101), for the HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM cohorts, respectively. Of 489 HIV-negative MSM, 328 were followed at least twice, with 261.1 person-years during the study period. The incidences of rectal CT/NG were 17.2 and 3.8/100 person-years and the incidences of pharyngeal CT/NG were 2.0 and 11.0/100 person-years for the two cohorts, respectively. Approximately 37.9% of incident cases were attributed to recurrent infection.


The prevalence and incidence of rectal CT/NG were high among MSM in Tokyo, Japan, suggesting that urgent countermeasures for early diagnosis and treatment are necessary.

Klíčová slova:

Chlamydia infection – Japan – Men who have sex with men – Pre-exposure prophylaxis – Rectum – Sexually transmitted diseases


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2019 Číslo 12
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