The subjective value of a smile alters social behaviour

Autoři: Erin A. Heerey aff001;  Thandiwe S. E. Gilder aff002
Působiště autorů: Psychology Department, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada aff001;  School of Psychology, Bangor University, Bangor, Wales, United Kingdom aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225284


Face-to-face social behaviour is difficult to explain, leading some researchers to call it the “dark matter” of psychology/neuroscience [1]. We apply an idea from neuroeconomics to this problem, suggesting that how people subjectively value facial expressions should predict usage differences during unconstrained interaction. Specifically, we ask whether the subjective value of smiles is malleable as a consequence of immediate social experience and how this relates to smiling during face-to-face interactions. We measured the value of a smile in monetary terms and found that increases in people’s social neediness caused devaluation of polite smiles but no changes in how they valued genuine smiles. This result predicts that participants induced to feel high levels of social need should be less responsive to their social partners’ polite smiles in a subsequent unconstrained social interaction. As expected, high social-need participants returned fewer polite smiles when interacting with a partner, leading to poor interaction outcomes. Genuine smile reciprocity remained unchanged. Findings show that social states influence real-world interactions by changing social-cue valuation, highlighting a potential mechanism for understanding the moment-to-moment control of social behaviour and how behaviour changes based on people’s subjective evaluations of the social environment.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Decision making – Emotions – Face – Personality – Research laboratories – Social research – Neuroeconomics


1. Schilbach L, Timmermans B, Reddy V, Costall A, Bente G, Schlicht T, et al. Toward a second-person neuroscience. The Behavioral and brain sciences. 2013;36(4):393–414. Epub 2013/07/26. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X12000660 23883742.

2. Frank MG, Ekman P, Friesen WV. Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1993;64(1):83–93. Epub 1993/01/01. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.64.1.83 8421253.

3. Maringer M, Krumhuber EG, Fischer AH, Niedenthal PM. Beyond smile dynamics: mimicry and beliefs in judgments of smiles. Emotion. 2011;11(1):181–7. Epub 2011/03/16. doi: 10.1037/a0022596 21401238.

4. Frank MG, Ekman P. Not all smiles are created equal: The differences between enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles. International Journal of Humor Research. 1993;6(1):9–26.

5. Kringelbach ML, Rolls ET. Neural correlates of rapid reversal learning in a simple model of human social interaction. NeuroImage. 2003;20(2):1371–83. Epub 2003/10/22. doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00393-8 14568506.

6. O’Doherty J, Winston J, Critchley H, Perrett D, Burt DM, Dolan RJ. Beauty in a smile: the role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia. 2003;41(2):147–55. Epub 2002/12/03. doi: 10.1016/s0028-3932(02)00145-8 12459213.

7. Ekman P, Davidson RJ, Friesen WV. The Duchenne smile: emotional expression and brain physiology. II. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1990;58(2):342–53. Epub 1990/02/01. 2319446.

8. Calvo MG, Marrero H, Beltran D. When does the brain distinguish between genuine and ambiguous smiles? An ERP study. Brain and cognition. 2013;81(2):237–46. Epub 2012/12/25. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.10.009 23262178.

9. Goffman E. On face-work; an analysis of ritual elements in social interaction. Psychiatry. 1955;18(3):213–31. Epub 1955/08/01. doi: 10.1080/00332747.1955.11023008 13254953.

10. Heerey EA, Crossley HM. Predictive and reactive mechanisms in smile reciprocity. Psychological science. 2013;24(8):1446–55. Epub 2013/06/08. doi: 10.1177/0956797612472203 23744875.

11. Hess U, Bourgeois P. You smile—I smile: emotion expression in social interaction. Biological psychology. 2010;84(3):514–20. Epub 2009/11/17. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.11.001 19913071.

12. Montoya RM, Kershaw C, Prosser JL. A meta-analytic investigation of the relation between interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Psychological bulletin. 2018;144(7):673–709. doi: 10.1037/bul0000148 29733622

13. Krumhuber E, Manstead AS, Cosker D, Marshall D, Rosin PL, Kappas A. Facial dynamics as indicators of trustworthiness and cooperative behavior. Emotion. 2007;7(4):730–5. Epub 2007/11/28. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.730 18039040.

14. Scharlemann JPW, Eckel CC, Kacelnik A, Wilson RK. The value of a smile: Game theory with a human face. J Economic Psychol. 2001;22(5):617–40.

15. Shore DM, Heerey EA. The value of genuine and polite smiles. Emotion. 2011;11(1):169–74. Epub 2011/03/16. doi: 10.1037/a0022601 21401236.

16. Glimcher PW, Dorris MC, Bayer HM. Physiological utility theory and the neuroeconomics of choice. Games and economic behavior. 2005;52(2):213–56. Epub 2006/07/18. doi: 10.1016/j.geb.2004.06.011 16845435

17. Levy DJ, Thavikulwat AC, Glimcher PW. State dependent valuation: the effect of deprivation on risk preferences. PloS one. 2013;8(1):e53978. Epub 2013/01/30. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053978 23358126

18. Baumeister RF, Leary MR. The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological bulletin. 1995;117(3):497–529. Epub 1995/05/01. 7777651.

19. Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD, Williams KD. Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion. Science. 2003;302(5643):290–2. Epub 2003/10/11. doi: 10.1126/science.1089134 14551436.

20. Kross E, Berman MG, Mischel W, Smith EE, Wager TD. Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011;108(15):6270–5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1102693108 21444827

21. Williams KD. Ostracism. Annual review of psychology. 2007;58:425–52. Epub 2006/09/14. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085641 16968209.

22. Eisenberger NI. The pain of social disconnection: examining the shared neural underpinnings of physical and social pain. Nature reviews Neuroscience. 2012;13(6):421–34. Epub 2012/05/04. doi: 10.1038/nrn3231 22551663.

23. Macdonald G, Leary MR. Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological bulletin. 2005;131(2):202–23. Epub 2005/03/03. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.2.202 15740417.

24. Twenge JM, Catanese KR, Baumeister RF. Social exclusion causes self-defeating behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2002;83(3):606–15. Epub 2002/09/11. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.83.3.606 12219857.

25. Cacioppo S, Cacioppo JT. Research in social neuroscience: How perceived social isolation, ostracism, and romantic rejection affect our brain. In: Riva P, Eck J, editors. Social Exclusion. Switzerland: Springer, Cham; 2016. p. 73–88.

26. Achterberg M, van Duijvenvoorde AC, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Crone EA. Control your anger! The neural basis of aggression regulation in response to negative social feedback. Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 2016;11(5):712–20.

27. Leary MR. Responses to social exclusion: Social anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, depression and low self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 1990;9(2):221–9.

28. Jin ES, Josephs RA. Acute and Chronic Physiological Consequences of Social Rejection. In: Williams K, Nida SA, editors. Ostracism, Exclusion and Rejection. New York, NY: Routledge; 2016. p. 94–104.

29. Bernstein MJ, Sacco DF, Brown C, Young SG, Claypool HM. A preference for genuine smiles following social exclusion. Journal of experimental social psychology. 2010;46(1):196–9.

30. Dewall CN, Maner JK, Rouby DA. Social exclusion and early-stage interpersonal perception: selective attention to signs of acceptance. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2009;96(4):729–41. Epub 2009/03/25. doi: 10.1037/a0014634 19309198.

31. Kawamoto T, Nittono H, Ura M. Social exclusion induces early-stage perceptual and behavioral changes in response to social cues. Social neuroscience. 2014;9(2):174–85. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2014.883325 24499456.

32. Pickett CL, Gardner WL, Knowles M. Getting a cue: the need to belong and enhanced sensitivity to social cues. Personality & social psychology bulletin. 2004;30(9):1095–107. Epub 2004/09/11. doi: 10.1177/0146167203262085 15359014.

33. Heerdink MW, Van Kleef GA, Homan AC, Fischer AH. Emotional expressions as social signals of rejection and acceptance: evidence from the affect misattribution paradigm. Journal of experimental social psychology. 2015;56(1):60–8.

34. Bernstein MJ, Young SG, Brown CM, Sacco DF, Claypool HM. Adaptive responses to social exclusion: social rejection improves detection of real and fake smiles. Psychological science. 2008;19(10):981–3. Epub 2008/11/13. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02187.x 19000206.

35. Maner JK, DeWall CN, Baumeister RF, Schaller M. Does social exclusion motivate interpersonal reconnection? Resolving the "porcupine problem". Journal of personality and social psychology. 2007;92(1):42–55. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.1.42 17201541.

36. Gardner WL, Pickett CL, Jefferis V, Knowles M. On the outside looking in: loneliness and social monitoring. Personality & social psychology bulletin. 2005;31(11):1549–60. doi: 10.1177/0146167205277208 16207773.

37. Heerey EA, Kring AM. Interpersonal consequences of social anxiety. Journal of abnormal psychology. 2007;116(1):125–34. Epub 2007/02/28. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.125 17324023.

38. Deaner RO, Khera AV, Platt ML. Monkeys pay per view: adaptive valuation of social images by rhesus macaques. Current biology: CB. 2005;15(6):543–8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2005.01.044 15797023.

39. Levy DJ, Glimcher PW. Comparing apples and oranges: using reward-specific and reward-general subjective value representation in the brain. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2011;31(41):14693–707. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2218-11.2011 21994386

40. Levy DJ, Glimcher PW. The root of all value: a neural common currency for choice. Current opinion in neurobiology. 2012;22(6):1027–38. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2012.06.001 22766486

41. Catalano L, Heerey E, Gold JM. The valuation of social rewards in schizophrenia. Journal of abnormal psychology. 2018;In Press.

42. Horsky D, Rao MR. Estimation of attribute weights from preference comparisons. Management Science. 1984;30(7):801–22.

43. Marquardt R, Makens J, Larzelere H. Measuring the utility added by branding and grading. Journal of Marketing Research. 1965;2(1):45–50.

44. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A, Buchner A. G*Power 3: A flexible statisticsl power analysis program for the social behavioral and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods. 2007;39(2):175–91. doi: 10.3758/bf03193146 17695343

45. Leary MR, Kowalski RM. The Interaction Anxiousness Scale: construct and criterion-related validity. Journal of personality assessment. 1993;61(1):136–46. Epub 1993/08/01. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6101_10 8377098.

46. Taylor CT, Bomyea J, Amir N. Attentional bias away from positive social information mediates the link between social anxiety and anxiety vulnerability to a social stressor. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2010;24(4):403–8. Epub 2010/03/09. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.02.004 20207102.

47. Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1988;54(6):1063–70. Epub 1988/06/01. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.54.6.1063 3397865.

48. Gunther Moor B, Crone EA, van der Molen MW. The heartbrake of social rejection: heart rate deceleration in response to unexpected peer rejection. Psychological science. 2010;21(9):1326–33. doi: 10.1177/0956797610379236 20696852.

49. Twenge JM, Baumeister RF, DeWall CN, Ciarocco NJ, Bartels JM. Social exclusion decreases prosocial behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2007;92(1):56–66. Epub 2007/01/05. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.1.56 17201542.

50. Brainard DH. The Psychophysics Toolbox. Spatial vision. 1997;10(4):433–6. Epub 1997/01/01. 9176952

51. von Neumann J, Morgenstern O. Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univeristy Press; 1953.

52. Sutton RS, Barto AG. Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1998.

53. Daubechies I, DeVore R, Fornasier M, Guentuerk CS. Iteratively reweighted least squares minimization for sparse recovery. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics. 2009;63(1):1–38.

54. Macmillan NA, Creelman CD. Detection Theory: A User’s Guide. 2nd ed. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2005.

55. Coyne JC. Depression and the response of others. Journal of abnormal psychology. 1976;2:186–93.

56. Kring AM, Sloan DM. The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): development, validation, and utility. Psychological assessment. 2007;19(2):210–24. Epub 2007/06/15. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.19.2.210 17563202.

57. Bakeman R, Quera V. Sequential analysis and observational methods for the behavioral sciences. Cambridge, UK: Canbridge University Press; 2011.

58. Kenny DA, La Voie L. Separating individual and group effects. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1985;48:339–48.

59. Kenny DA, Judd CM. Consequences of violating the interdependence assumption in analysis of variance. Psychological bulletin. 1986;99:422–31.

60. Kenny DA, Kashy DA, Cook WL. Dyadic Data Analysis. New York, NY: Guilford; 2006.

61. Kenny DA, Mohr CD, Levesque MJ. A social relations variance partitioning of dyadic behavior. Psychological bulletin. 2001;127(1):128–41. Epub 2001/03/29. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.127.1.128 11271751.

62. Snyder M, Tanke ED, Bercheid E. Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1977;35(9):656–66.

63. Anderson BA. Social reward shapes attentional biases. Cogn Neurosci. 2016;7(1–4):30–6. doi: 10.1080/17588928.2015.1047823 25941868

64. Yantis S, Anderson BA, Wampler EK, Laurent PA. Reward and attentional control in visual search. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. 2012;59:91–116. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-4794-8_5 23437631

65. Shore DM, Heerey EA. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing? Cognition. 2013;129(1):114–22. Epub 2013/07/28. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.06.011 23887150.

66. Cheung EO, Slotter EB, Gardner WL. Are you feeling what I’m feeling? The role of facial mimicry in facilitating reconnection following social exclusion. Motivation & Emotion. 2015;39(4):613–30.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12