The association of weight status and weight perception with number of confidants in adolescents

Autoři: Asuka Nishida aff001;  Jerome Clifford Foo aff001;  Shinji Shimodera aff003;  Atsushi Nishida aff004;  Yuji Okazaki aff005;  Fumiharu Togo aff001;  Tsukasa Sasaki aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Physical and Health Education, Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan aff001;  Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany aff002;  Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan aff003;  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan aff004;  Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225908


Weight status and self-weight perception are related to social relationship issues. Studies have suggested links between non-normal weight status or weight perception and youths having fewer confidants, but these relationships are unclear and remain to be studied. This preliminary cross-sectional study examined the effects of weight status and weight perception on the number of confidants in adolescents. Self-report data from 15,279 grade 7–12 students (54.2% boys) were analyzed. The number of confidants (0–3 or ≥ 4) was examined, according to five weight status categories (underweight, low-normal weight, mid-normal weight (reference), high-normal weight, overweight, with Body Mass Index corresponding to ≤ 18.5, ≤ 20.0, ≤ 22.5, ≤ 25.0 and > 25.0 in adults, respectively), and five weight perception categories (too thin, a bit thin, good (reference), a bit fat, too fat). Boys and girls who were overweight and those who perceived themselves to be too fat were significantly more likely to have few confidants. High-normal weight in girls and self-perception of being a bit fat in boys were also associated with having few confidants. In boys, underweight and self-perception of being too thin were additionally associated with having few confidants. Adolescents with non-normal weight status or weight perception may have fewer confidants and require more social support.

Klíčová slova:

Adolescents – Body Mass Index – Depression – Fats – Interpersonal relationships – Mental health and psychiatry – Obesity – Schools


1. Lerner R, Steinberg L, editors. Handbook of adolescent psychology volume 2: contextual influences on adolescent development. 3rd ed. Vol. 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2009.

2. Patton GC, Olsson CA, Skirbekk V, Saffery R, Wlodek ME, Azzopardi PS, et al. Adolescence and the next generation. Nature. 2018;554(7693):458–66. doi: 10.1038/nature25759 29469095

3. Murray CJL. Quantifying the burden of disease: the technical basis for disability-adjusted life years. Bull World Health Organ. 1994;72(3):429–45. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07495-8 8062401

4. Bruce D, Ferguson BJ. Health for the world’s adolescents: a second chance in the second decade. J Adolesc Heal. 2015;56(1):3–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.10.260 25530601

5. Hall-Lande JA, Eisenberg ME, Christenson SL, Neumark-Sztainer D. Social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescence. Adolescence. 2007;42(166):265–86. 17849936

6. Ponce M, Flores YN, Mudgal J, Huitrón G, Halley E, Gallegos-Carrillo K, et al. The association between type of confidant and depressive symptomology in a sample of Mexican youth. Salud Ment. 2010;33(3):249–56.

7. Endo K, Ando S, Shimodera S, Yamasaki S, Usami S, Okazaki Y, et al. Preference for solitude, social isolation, suicidal ideation, and self-harm in adolescents. J Adolesc Heal. 2017;61(2):187–91. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.02.018 28457686

8. Brugha TS, Wing JK, Brewin CR, MacCarthy B, Lesage A. The relationship of social network deficits with deficits in social functioning in long-term psychiatric disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1993;28(5):218–24. doi: 10.1007/bf00788740 8284734

9. Puhl RM, Latner JD. Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation’s children. 2007;133(4):557–80. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.4.557 17592956

10. Marathe A. Analysis of friendship network and its role in explaining obesity. ACM Intell Syst Technol. 2014;4(3):1–37. doi: 10.1145/2483669.2483689 25328818

11. Crosnoe R, Frank K, Mueller AS. Gender, body size and social relations in American high schools. Soc Forces. 2007;86:1189.

12. Baygi F, Kelishadi R, Qorbani M, Mohammadi F, Motlagh ME, Ardalan G, et al. Association of some psychosocial factors with anthropometric measures in nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2016;15(1):1–11. doi: 10.1186/S40200-016-0237-7 27252934

13. Ali MM, Amialchuk A, Rizzo JA. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents. Econ Hum Biol. 2012;10(1):20–34. doi: 10.1016/j.ehb.2011.10.001 22056235

14. Schaefer MK, Blodgett EH. Eating Behaviors The connection of teasing by parents, siblings, and peers with girls’ body dissatisfaction and boys’ drive for muscularity: the role of social comparison as a mediator. Eat Behav. 2014;15(2014):599–608. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.08.018 25218358

15. Kjelgaard HH, Holstein BE, Due P, Brixval CS, Rasmussen M. Adolescent weight status: associations with structural and functional dimensions of social relations. J Adolesc Heal. 2017;60(4):460–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.11.016 28110866

16. Berge JM, Wall M, Larson N, Loth KA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Family functioning: associations with weight status, eating behaviors, and physical activity in adolescents. 2013;52(3):351–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.006 23299010

17. ter Bogt TFM, van Dorsselaer SAFM, Monshouwer K, Verdurmen JEE, Engels RCME, Vollebergh WAM. Body Mass Index and body weight perception as risk factors for internalizing and externalizing problem behavior among adolescents. J Adolesc Heal. 2006;39(1):27–34. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.09.007 16781958

18. Mason A, Rantanen A, Kivim H, Koivisto A, Joronen K. Family factors and health behaviour of thin adolescent boys and girls. J Adv Nurs. 2016;73(1):177–89. doi: 10.1111/jan.13096 27508504

19. Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Wang L, Gao S, Wang P, Terracciano A. Personality traits and Body Mass Index in Asian populations. J Res Pers. 2015;58:137–42. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2015.07.006 26327738

20. Allen MS, Walter EE. Personality and body image: a systematic review. Body Image. 2016;19:79–88. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.08.012 27636159

21. Huang L, Tao FB, Wan YH, Xing C, Hao J, Su PY, et al. Self-reported weight status rather than BMI may be closely related to psychopathological symptoms among Mainland Chinese adolescents. J Trop Pediatr. 2011;57(4):307–11. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp097 19797398

22. Griffiths S, Murray SB, Bentley C, Gratwick-Sarll K, Harrison C, Mond JM. Sex differences in quality of life impairment associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescents. J Adolesc Heal. 2017;61(1):77–82. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.01.016 28389062

23. Park E. Overestimation and underestimation: adolescents’ weight perception in comparison to BMI-based weight status and how it varies across socio-demographic factors. J Sch Heal. 2011;81(2):57–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00561.x 21223272

24. Rayner KE, Schniering CA, Rapee RM, Taylor A, Hutchinson DM. Adolescent girls’ friendship networks, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating: examining selection and socialization processes. J Abnorm Psychol. 2013;122(1):93–104. doi: 10.1037/a0029304 22867115

25. Cole TJ, Flegal KM, Nicholls D, Jackson AA. Body Mass Index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. Br Med J. 2007;335(7612):194–7. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39238.399444.55 17591624

26. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Br Med J. 2000;320(7244):1240–1240. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240 10797032

27. Joshy G, Korda RJ, Bauman A, Van Der Ploeg HP, Chey T, Banks E. Investigation of methodological factors potentially underlying the apparently paradoxical findings on body mass index and all-cause mortality. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e88641. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088641 24533128

28. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Body-Mass Index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet. 2009;373(9669):1083–96. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60318-4 19299006

29. Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, Flint AJ, Hannan L, Macinnis RJ, et al. Body-Mass Index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2211–9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1000367 21121834

30. Storch EA, Roth DA, Coles ME, Heimberg RG, Bravata EA, Moser J. The measurement and impact of childhood teasing in a sample of young adults. J Anxiety Disord. 2004;18(5):681–94. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2003.09.003 15275946

31. Hayden-Wade HA, Stein RI, Ghaderi A, Saelens BE, Zabinski MF, Wilfley DE. Prevalence, characteristics, and correlates of teasing experiences among overweight children vs. non-overweight peers. Obes Res. 2005;13(8):1381–92. doi: 10.1038/oby.2005.167 16129720

32. Juvonen J, Lessard LM, Schacter HL, Suchilt L. Emotional implications of weight stigma across middle school: the role of weight-based peer discrimination. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2017;46(1):150–8. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1188703 27617887

33. van Harmelen AL, Gibson JL, St Clair MC, Owens M, Brodbeck J, Dunn V, et al. Friendships and family support reduce subsequent depressive symptoms in at-risk adolescents. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0153715. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153715 27144447

34. Tait RJ, Hulse GK, Robertson SI. A review of the validity of the General Health Questionnaire in adolescent populations. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002;36(4):550–7. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.01028.x 12169157

35. Nakagawa Y, Daibo I. Manual of the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire. Tokyo: Nihon Bunka Kagakusha; 1985.

36. Honda S, Shibata Y, Nakane N. Screening of mental disorder with GHQ-12. J Heal Welf Stat. 2001;48(10):5–10.

37. Rancourt D, Prinstein MJ. Peer status and victimization as possible reinforcements of adolescent girls’ and boys’ weight-related behaviors and cognitions. J Pediatr Psychol. 2010;35(4):354–67. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp067 19667053

38. Marini M, Sriram N, Schnabel K, Maliszewski N, Devos T, Ekehammar B, et al. Overweight people have low levels of implicit weight bias, but overweight nations have high levels of implicit weight bias. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):1–9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083543 24358291

39. Puhl RM, Heuer CA. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity. 2009;17(5):941–64. doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.636 19165161

40. Simpkins SD, Schaefer DR, Price CD, Vest AE. Adolescent friendships, BMI, and physical activity: untangling selection and influence through longitudinal social network analysis. J Res Adolesc. 2013;23(3):1–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00836.x 24222971

41. Bully P, Elosua P. Changes in body dissatisfaction relative to gender and age: the modulating character of BMI. Span J Psychol. 2011;14(1):313–22. doi: 10.5209/rev_sjop.2011.v14.n1.28 21568188

42. McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA. Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: a review of past literature. J Psychosom. 2004;56(6):675–85. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00129-6

43. Cohane GH, Pope HG. Body image in boys: a review of the literature. Int J Eat Disord. 2001;29(4):373–9. doi: 10.1002/eat.1033 11285574

44. Hoffmann S, Warschburger P. Weight, shape, and muscularity concerns in male and female adolescents: predictors of change and influences on eating concern. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(2):139–47. doi: 10.1002/eat.22635 27739586

45. Brugha TS, Weich S, Singleton N, Lewis G, Bebbington PE, Jenkins R, et al. Primary group size, social support, gender and future mental health status in a prospective study of people living in private households throughout Great Britain. Psychol Med. 2005;35(5):705–14. doi: 10.1017/s0033291704003903 15918347

46. Leverich GS, Altshuler LL, Frye MA, Suppes T, E KP, McElroy SL, et al. Factors associated with suicide attempts in 648 patients with bipolar disorder in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(5):506–15. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v64n0503 12755652

47. Sutaria S, Devakumar D, Yasuda SS, Das S, Saxena S. Is obesity associated with depression in children? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2018;104(1):64–74. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-314608 29959128

48. Ikeda M, Tanaka S, Saito T, Ozaki N, Kamatani Y, Iwata N. Re-evaluating classical body type theories: genetic correlation between psychiatric disorders and Body Mass Index. Psychol Med. 2018;48(10):1745–8. doi: 10.1017/S0033291718000685 29651975

49. Sormunen E, Saarinen MM, Salokangas RKR, Hutri-kähönen N, Viikari JSA, Raitakari OT, et al. Body Mass Index trajectories in childhood and adolescence—risk for non-affective psychosis. Schizophr Res. 2018;S0920-9964(18):30627–33. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.10.025 30482644

50. Al Mamun A, Cramb S, McDermott BM, O’Callaghan M, Najman JM, Williams GM. Adolescents’ perceived weight associated with depression in young adulthood: a longitudinal study. Obesity. 2007;15(12):3097–105. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.369 18198320

51. Whitehead RD, Cosma A, Cecil J, Currie C, Currie D, Neville F, et al. Trends in the perceived body size of adolescent males and females in Scotland, 1990–2014: changing associations with mental well-being. Int J Public Health. 2018;63(1):69–80. doi: 10.1007/s00038-017-0997-y 28668973

52. Xie B, Reynolds K, Palmer PH, Gallaher P, Anderson JC, Wu Q, et al. Longitudinal analysis of weight perception and psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Am J Heal Behav. 2011;35(1):92–104. doi: 10.5993/ajhb.35.1.9 20950162

53. He J, Cai Z, Fan X. Accuracy of using self-reported data to screen children and adolescents for overweight and obesity status: a diagnostic meta-analysis. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2017;11(3):257–67. doi: 10.1016/j.orcp.2017.03.004 28389205

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12