Monitoring hunted species of cultural significance: Estimates of trends, population sizes and harvesting rates of flying-fox (Pteropus sp.) in New Caledonia


Autoři: Malik Oedin aff001;  Fabrice Brescia aff001;  Mélanie Boissenin aff001;  Eric Vidal aff002;  Jean-Jérôme Cassan aff004;  Jean-Claude Hurlin aff001;  Alexandre Millon aff005
Působiště autorů: Institut Agronomique Néo-Calédonien (IAC), Equipe ARBOREAL (AgricultuRe BiOdiveRsité Et vALorisation) BP, Païta, Nouvelle-Calédonie aff001;  Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale (IMBE), Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Avignon Université, Centre IRD Nouméa, Nouvelle-Calédonie aff002;  UMR Entropie (IRD, Université de La Réunion, CNRS), Labex-Corail, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Nouvelle-Calédonie aff003;  Province Nord, Direction du Développement Economique et de l’Environnement, Service impact environnemental et conservation (DDEE), Service impact environnemental & conservation, Koné, Nouvelle-Calédonie aff004;  Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Avignon Université, Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale (IMBE), Technopôle Arbois-Méditerranée, Aix-en-Provence, France aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224466

Souhrn

Assessing population trends and their underlying factors is critical to propose efficient conservation actions. This assessment can be particularly challenging when dealing with highly mobile, shy and nocturnal animals such as flying-foxes. Here we investigated the dynamics of hunted populations of Pteropus ornatus and P. tonganus in the Northern Province of New Caledonia. First, an ethno-ecological survey involving 219 local experts identified 494 flying-fox roosts. Current status was assessed for 379 of them, among which 125 were no longer occupied, representing a loss of 33% over ca. 40 years. Second, species-specific counts conducted at 35 roosts, and a sample of animals killed by hunters, revealed that the endemic species, P. ornatus, was dominant (68.5%). Between 2010 and 2016, 30 roosts were counted annually during the pre-parturition period. Roosts size averaged 1,425 ± 2,151 individuals (N = 180 counts) and showed high among-year variations (roost-specific CV = 37–162%). If we recorded significant inter-annual variation, we did not detect a significant decline over the 7-yr period, although one roost went possibly extinct. Population size of the two species combined was estimated at 338,000−859,000 individuals distributed over ca. 400 roosts in the Northern Province. Flying-foxes are popular game species and constitute traditional food for all communities of New Caledonia. Annual bags derived from a food survey allowed us to estimate harvesting rates at 5–14%. Such a level of harvesting for species with a ‘slow’ demography, the occurrence of poaching and illegal trade, suggest the current species use might not be sustainable and further investigations are critically needed.

Klíčová slova:

Conservation biology – Foraging – Forests – Invasive species – Islands – Population size – Species extinction – New Caledonia


Zdroje

1. Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR, Dirzo R. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704949114 28696295

2. Clavero M, Garcia-Berthou E. Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions. Trends Ecol Evol. 2005;20: 110–110. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.01.003 16701353

3. Fahrig L. Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst. 2003;34: 487–515. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419

4. Maxwell SL, Fuller RA, Brooks TM, Watson JEM. Biodiversity: The ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature. 2016;536: 143–145. doi: 10.1038/536143a 27510207

5. Millon A, Petty SJ, Little B, Gimenez O, Cornulier T, Lambin X. Dampening prey cycle overrides the impact of climate change on predator population dynamics: a long-term demographic study on tawny owls. Glob Chang Biol. 2014;20: 1770–1781. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12546 24634279

6. Primack RB, Sarrazin F, Lecomte J. Biologie de la conservation. Sciences-Sup, Dunod éditions, Paris.; 2012.

7. Rosser AM, Mainka SA. Overexploitation and Species Extinctions. Conserv Biol. 2002;16: 584–586. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.01635.x

8. Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE, Bakkenes M, Beaumont LJ, Collingham YC, et al. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature. 2004;427: 145–148. doi: 10.1038/nature02121 14712274

9. Nichols JD, Williams BK. Monitoring for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol. 2006;21: 668–673. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2006.08.007 16919361

10. Brook CE, Ranaivoson HC, Andriafidison D, Ralisata M, Razafimanahaka J, Héraud J-M, et al. Population trends for two Malagasy fruit bats. Biol Conserv. Elsevier; 2019;234: 165–171. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.03.032

11. IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018.

12. Mickleburgh SP, Hutson AM, Racey PA. A review of the global conservation status of bats. Oryx. 2002;36: 18–34. doi: 10.1017/S0030605302000054

13. Vincenot CE, Florens FBV, Kingston T. Can we protect island flying foxes? Science (80-). 2017;355: 1368–1370. doi: 10.1126/science.aam7582 28360279

14. Cox PA, Elmqvist T, Pierson ED, Rainey WE. Flying Foxes as Strong Interactors in South Pacific Island Ecosystems: A Conservation Hypothesis. Conserv Biol. 1991;5: 448–454. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00351.x

15. Aziz SA, Clements GR, McConkey KR, Sritongchuay T, Pathil S, Abu Yazid MNH, et al. Pollination by the locally endangered island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) enhances fruit production of the economically important durian (Durio zibethinus). Ecol Evol. 2017;7: 8670–8684. doi: 10.1002/ece3.3213 29152168

16. Fujita MS, Tuttle MD. Flying Foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): Threatened Animals of Key Ecological and Economic Importance. Conserv Biol. 1991;5: 455–463. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00352.x

17. Hansen DM, Galetti M. The Forgotten Megafauna. Science (80-). 2009;324: 42–43. doi: 10.1126/science.1172393 19342573

18. McIlwee AP, Martin L. On the intrinsic capacity for increase of Australian flying-foxes (Pteropus spp., Megachiroptera). Aust Zool. 2002;32: 76–100. doi: 10.7882/AZ.2002.008

19. Mildenstein T, Tanshi I, Racey PA. Exploitation of Bats for Bushmeat and Medicine. Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. pp. 325–375. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-25220-9_12

20. Pierson ED, Rainey WE. The biology of flying-foxes of the genus Pteropus: a review. Pacific island flying foxes: Proceedings of an International Conference Conference (DE Wilson and GL Graham, editors) US Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report (Vol 90). 1992. pp. 1–17.

21. Bani E. Fruit bats of Vanuatu. Pacific island flying foxes: Proceedings of an International Conference Conference (DE Wilson and GL Graham, editors) US Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report (Vol 90). 1992. pp. 123–127.

22. Bowen-Jones E, Entwistle A. Identifying appropriate flagship species: the importance of culture and local contexts. Oryx. 2002;36: 189–195. doi: 10.1017/S0030605302000261

23. Lavery TH, Fasi J. Buying through your teeth: traditional currency and conservation of flying foxes Pteropus spp. in Solomon Islands. Oryx. 2019; 53:505–512. doi: 10.1017/S0030605317001004

24. Sinavaiana C, Enright J. The cultural significance of the flying fox in Samoa: a legendary view. Pacific island flying foxes: Proceedings of an International Conference Conference (DE Wilson and GL Graham, editors) US Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report (Vol 90). 1992. pp. 36–38.

25. Crawford BA, Moore CT, Norton TM, Maerz JC. Integrated analysis for population estimation, management impact evaluation, and decision-making for a declining species. Biol Conserv. 2018;222: 33–43. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.03.023

26. Nichols JD, Runge MC, Johnson FA, Williams BK. Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations: a brief history and future prospects. J Ornithol. 2007;148: 343–349. doi: 10.1007/s10336-007-0256-8

27. Boissenin M, Oedin M, Brescia F. Variations d’effectifs, déplacements et régime alimentaire des roussettes en province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Institut Agronomique Néo-calédonien (IAC), Unpubl report http//www.iac.nc/ressources-publications/catalogue-en-ligne-gaiac. 2016;

28. Westcott DA, Caley P, Heersink DK, McKeown A. A state-space modelling approach to wildlife monitoring with application to flying-fox abundance. Sci Rep. Springer US; 2018;8: 1–9. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17765-5

29. Westcott DA, Fletcher CS, McKeown A, Murphy HT. Assessment of monitoring power for highly mobile vertebrates. Ecol Appl. 2012;22: 374–383. doi: 10.1890/11-0132.1 22471097

30. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature. 2000;403: 853–858. doi: 10.1038/35002501 10706275

31. Boissenin M, Brescia F. Etude bioécologique des Mégachiroptères (roussettes) en province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Institut Agronomique Néo-calédonien (IAC), Unpublished report. http://www.iac.nc/ressources-publications/catalogue-en-ligne-gaiac. 2009.

32. Fossier C, Sabinot C, Bouard S, Boissenin M, Bako G, Pujapujane A, et al. Amélioration des connaissances sur les roussettes des Îles Loyauté. Institut Agronomique Néo-calédonien (IAC), Unpublished report. http://www.iac.nc/ressources-publications/catalogue-en-ligne-gaiac. 2017.

33. Leblic I. Les clans pêcheurs en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Cah Sci Hum. 1989; 25: 109–123.

34. Ignames Leblic I., interdits et ancêtres en Nouvelle-Calédonie. J Soc Ocean. 2002; 115–127. doi: 10.4000/jso.1439

35. Boissenin M, Brescia F. Variations d’effectifs, déplacements et régime alimentaire des roussettes en province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Institut Agronomique Néo-calédonien (IAC), Unpublished report. http://www.iac.nc/ressources-publications/catalogue-en-ligne-gaiac. 2015.

36. Brescia F. Amélioration des connaissances et recommandations pour la sauvegarde des populations de Mégachiroptères (Rroussettes) en Province Sud de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Institut Agronomique Néo-calédonien (IAC), Unpublished report. http://www.iac.nc/ressources-publications/catalogue-en-ligne-gaiac. 2007.

37. ISEE. Recensement de la population 2014. Synthèse N°35. Institut de la statistique et des études économiques Nouvelle-Calédonie. Unpublished report. http://www.isee.nc/population/demographie. 2014.

38. Boissenin M. Suivi de gîtes pilotes de Mégachiroptères (roussettes) en province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Institut Agronomique Néo-calédonien (IAC), Unpublished report. http://www.iac.nc/ressources-publications/catalogue-en-ligne-gaiac. 2010.

39. Boissenin M. Proposition de projet pour la mise en place d’un programme de suivi à long terme des tendances évolutives des Mégachiroptères (roussettes) en province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Institut Agronomique Néo-calédonien (IAC), Unpublished report. http://www.iac.nc/ressources-publications/catalogue-en-ligne-gaiac. 2010.

40. Eby P, Richards G, Collins L, Parry-Jones K. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Aust Zool. 1999;31: 240–253. doi: 10.7882/AZ.1999.024

41. Kunz TH, Betke M, Hristov NI, Vonhof MJ. Methods for assessing colony size, and relative abundance of bats. In: Kunz TH, Parsons S, editors. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. 2nd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland; 2009. pp. 133–157.

42. Utzurrum RCB, Wiles GJ, Brooke AP, Worthington DJ. Count Methods and Population Trends in Pacific Island Flying Foxes. In: O’Shea TJ, Bogan MA, editors. Monitoring Trends in Bat Populations in the United States and Territories: Problems and Prospects. US Geological Survey Information and Technology Report 2003–003, Washington, DC, USA; 2003. pp. 49–61.

43. Forsyth DM, Scroggie MP, McDonald-Madden E. Accuracy and precision of grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) flyout counts. Wildl Res. 2006; doi: 10.1071/wr05029

44. Westcott D, McKeown A. Observer error in exit counts of flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.). Wildl Res. 2004;31: 551. doi: 10.1071/WR03091

45. Westcott DA, Heersink DK, McKeown A, Caley P. The status and trends of Australia’s EPBC-Listed flying-foxes. CSIRO, Australia 2015.

46. Zuur AF, Ieno EN, Walker N, Saveliev AA, Smith GM. Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2009. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-87458-6

47. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. http://www.R-project.org/. In: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. 2017.

48. Hahn MB, Patz JA, Gurley ES, Epstein JH, Daszak P, Islam MS, et al. The role of landscape composition and configuration on Pteropus giganteus roosting ecology and Nipah virus spillover risk in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90: 247–255. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0256 24323516

49. Mildenstein TL, Stier SC, Nuevo-Diego CE, Mills LS. Habitat selection of endangered and endemic large flying-foxes in Subic Bay, Philippines. Biol Conserv. 2005;126: 93–102. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.05.001

50. Parsons JG, Robson SKA, Shilton LA. Roost fidelity in spectacled flying-foxes Pteropus conspicillatus: Implications for conservation and management. In: Law B, Eby P, Lunney D, Lumsden L, editors. The biology and conservation of Australasian bats. l. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman; 2011. pp. 66–71.

51. Racey PA, Goodman SM, Jenkins RKB. The ecology and conservation of Malagasy bats. In: Fleming TH, a PA, editors. Island Bats: Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago University Press, Chicago; 2009. pp. 369–404.

52. Brook RK, McLachlan SM. Trends and prospects for local knowledge in ecological and conservation research and monitoring. Biodivers Conserv. 2008;17: 3501–3512. doi: 10.1007/s10531-008-9445-x

53. Huntington HP. Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: Methods and applications. Ecol Appl. 2000;10: 1270–1274. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1270:UTEKIS]2.0.CO;2

54. Predavec M, Lunney D, Shannon I, Lemon J, Sonawane I, Crowther M. Using repeat citizen science surveys of koalas to assess their population trend in the north-west of New South Wales: scale matters. Aust Mammal. 2018;40: 47. doi: 10.1071/AM16059

55. Ziembicki MR, Woinarski JCZ, Mackey B. Evaluating the status of species using Indigenous knowledge: Novel evidence for major native mammal declines in northern Australia. Biol Conserv. 2013;157: 78–92. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.004

56. Bourret D. Etude ethnobotanique des Dioscoréacées alimentaires: Ignames de Nouvelle Calédonie. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:07262. 1973.

57. Milner-Gulland EJ, Akçakaya HR. Sustainability indices for exploited populations. Trends Ecol Evol. 2001;16: 686–692. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02278-9

58. Fox S, Luly J, Mitchell C, MacLean J, Westcott DA. Demographic indications of decline in the spectacled flying fox (Pteropus conspicillatus) on the Atherton Tablelands of northern Queensland. Wildl Res. 2008;35: 417–424. doi: 10.1071/WR07127

59. Tidemann CR, Nelson JE. Life Expectancy, Causes of Death and Movements of the Grey-Headed Flying-Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) Inferred from Banding. Acta Chiropterologica. 2011;13: 419–429. doi: 10.3161/150811011X624901

60. Vardon MJ, Tidemann CR. The black flying-fox (Pteropus alecto) in north Australia: juvenile mortality and longevity. Aust J Zool. 2000;48: 91. doi: 10.1071/ZO99060

61. Niel C, Lebreton J-D. Using Demographic Invariants to Detect Overharvested Bird Populations from Incomplete Data. Conserv Biol. 2005;19: 826–835. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00310.x

62. Ling S, Milner-Gulland EJ. Research Notes: Assessment of the Sustainability of Bushmeat Hunting Based on Dynamic Bioeconomic Models. Conserv Biol. 2006;20: 1294–1299. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00414.x 16922245

63. Sheherazade Tsang SM. Roost of gray flying foxes (Pteropus griseus) in Indonesia and records of a new hunting threat. Diversity. 2018;10. doi: 10.3390/d10030102

64. Wiles GJ, Payne NH. The trade in fruit bats Pteropus spp. on Guam and other Pacific islands. Biol Conserv. 1986;38: 143–161. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(86)90070-4

65. MacKinnon J, Hawkins C, Racey P. Pteropodidae, Fruit bats, Fanihy, Angavo. The Natural History of Madagascar. 2003. pp. 1299–1302.

66. Wodzicki K, Felten H. The Peka, or Fruit Bat (Pteropus tonganus tonganus) (Mammalia, Chiroptera), of Niue Island, South Pacific. Pacific Sci. 1975;

67. Rahaingodrahety V, Andriafidison D, Ratsimbazafy J, Racey P, Jenkins R. Three flying fox (Pteropodidae: Pteropus rufus) roosts, three conservation challenges in southeastern Madagascar. Madagascar Conserv Dev. 2009;3: 17–21. doi: 10.4314/mcd.v3i1.44131

68. Parsons JG, Wal J Van Der, Robson SKA, Shilton LA. The Implications of Sympatry in the Spectacled and Grey Headed Flying-Fox, Pteropus conspicillatus and P. poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Acta Chiropterologica. 2010;12: 301–309. doi: 10.3161/150811010X537882

69. Jenkins RKB, Andriafidison D, Razafimanahaka HJ, Rabearivelo A, Razafindrakoto N, Ratsimandresy Z, et al. Not rare, but threatened: The endemic Madagascar flying fox Pteropus rufus in a fragmented landscape. Oryx. 2007;41: 263–271. doi: 10.1017/S0030605307001883

70. Ibanez T, Birnbaum P, Gâteblé G, Hequet V, Isnard S, Munzinger J, et al. Twenty years after Jaffré et al. (1998), is the system of protected areas now adequate in New Caledonia? Biodivers Conserv. 2019;28: 245–254. doi: 10.1007/s10531-018-1659-y

71. Jaffré T, L’huillier L. La végétation des roches ultramafiques ou terrains miniers. Mines et environnement en Nouvelle-Calédonie: les milieux sur substrats ultramafiques et leur restauration IAC Ed, Noumea. 2010. pp. 45–103.

72. McConkey KR, Drake DR. Indirect Evidence that Flying Foxes Track Food Resources Among Islands in a Pacific Archipelago. Biotropica. 2007;39: 436–440. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2007.00269.x

73. Wiles GJ, Johnson NC. Population Size and Natural History of Mariana Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands. Pacific Sci. 2004;58: 585–596. doi: 10.1353/psc.2004.0044

74. Gomez C, Mangeas M, Curt T, Ibanez T, Munzinger J, Dumas P, et al. Wildfire risk for main vegetation units in a biodiversity hotspot: Modeling approach in New Caledonia, South Pacific. Ecol Evol. 2015;5: 377–390. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1317 25691965

75. Curt T, Borgniet L, Ibanez T, Moron V, Hély C. Understanding fire patterns and fire drivers for setting a sustainable management policy of the New-Caledonian biodiversity hotspot. For Ecol Manage. 2015;337: 48–60. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.10.032

76. Dumas P, Toussaint M, Herrenschmidt J, Conte A, Mangeas M. Le risque de feux de brousse sur la Grande Terre de Nouvelle-Calédonie: l’Homme responsable mais pas coupable. Rev Géographique l’Est https//journals.openedition.org/rge/4598. 2013;53.

77. OEIL. Géoportail Vulcain, Impact environnemental des incendies. In: Observatoire de l’Environnement en Nouvelle-Calédonie. 2019.

78. McConkey KR, Drake DR, Franklin J, Tonga F. Effects of Cyclone Waka on flying foxes (Pteropus tonganus) in the Vava’u Islands of Tonga. J Trop Ecol. 2004;20: 555–561. doi: 10.1017/S0266467404001804

79. Pierson ED, Elmqvist T, Rainey WE, Cox PA. Effects of tropical cyclonic storms on flying fox populations on the South Pacific Islands of Samoa. Conserv Biol. 1996; doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10020438.x

80. Florens FBV, Baider C, Marday V, Martin GMN, Zmanay Z, Oleksy R, et al. Disproportionately large ecological role of a recently mass-culled flying fox in native forests of an oceanic island. J Nat Conserv. 2017;40: 85–93. doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2017.10.002

81. Florens FBV, Baider C. Mass-culling of a threatened island flying fox species failed to increase fruit growers’ profits and revealed gaps to be addressed for effective conservation. J Nat Conserv. 2019;47: 58–64. doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2018.11.008

82. Olival KJ. To cull, or not to cull, bat is the question. Ecohealth. 2016; 13:6–8. doi: 10.1007/s10393-015-1075-7 26631385

83. Dorrestein A, Todd CM, Westcott DA, Martin JM, Welbergen JA. Impacts of an invasive ant species on roosting behavior of an island endemic flying-fox. Biotropica. 2019;51: 75–83. doi: 10.1111/btp.12620

84. Welch JN, Leppanen C. The threat of invasive species to bats: a review. Mamm Rev. 2017;47: 277–290. doi: 10.1111/mam.12099

85. Vincenot CE, Collazo AM, Russo D. The Ryukyu flying fox (Pteropus dasymallus)—A review of conservation threats and call for reassessment. Mamm Biol. Elsevier GmbH; 2017;83: 71–77. doi: 10.1016/j.mambio.2016.11.006

86. Palmas P, Jourdan H, Rigault F, Debar L, De Meringo H, Bourguet E, et al. Feral cats threaten the outstanding endemic fauna of the New Caledonia biodiversity hotspot. Biol Conserv. Elsevier; 2017;214: 250–259. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.003


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 12