Evaluating the impact of setting delineators in tunnels based on drivers’ visual characteristics


Autoři: Xueyan Han aff001;  Yang Shao aff001;  Binghong Pan aff001;  Peng Yu aff002;  Bin Li aff001
Působiště autorů: School of Highway, Chang’an University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China aff001;  Northwest Branch of China Airport Construction Group Corporation, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225799

Souhrn

Poor visual conditions in tunnels can easily cause traffic accidents, and it is difficult for emergency services to reach these areas. As an economical and effective visual guiding device, delineators have attracted wide attention. Based on the actual alignment of the Qinling Mountain No.1, No.2 and No.3 tunnels of the G5 Expressway in Xi’an City (Shaanxi Province, China), this paper designs a simulation experiment. Through a simulator study and a questionnaire survey, this paper discusses how delineators affect drivers’ visual characteristics (including fixation area and pupil size) in different settings and with different road alignments. Twenty-five subjects participated in this research. The results show that setting delineators in tunnels can continuously guide drivers’ vision and attract their attention to focus on the pavement. Compared with setting only pavement delineators, setting wall delineators and pavement delineators together can provide better guiding effects and ensure driving safety in both straight and curved sections. In addition, when driving in tunnels equipped with delineators, especially tunnels with both wall delineators and pavement delineators, the participants exhibited a smaller pupil diameter and lower pupil diameter change rate. In terms of the relationship between pupil size and road alignment, the results indicated that regardless of what type of delineator was used, the drivers exhibited the smallest pupil size and lowest pupil change rate when driving on the straight section compared with the curved sections.

Klíčová slova:

Attention – Experimental design – Eye movements – Material fatigue – Radii – Roads – Traffic safety – Vision


Zdroje

1. Ministry of Transport, Statistical Bulletin on the Development of Transportation Industry in 2018.2019 April 12. In: Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China, Government Information Disclosure Column[Internet]. Available from: http://xxgk.mot.gov.cn/jigou/zhghs/201904/t20190412_3186720.html.

2. Chen F, Chen S, Ma X Analysis of Hourly Crash Likelihood Using Unbalanced Panel Data Mixed Logit Model and Real-time Driving Environmental Big Data. Journal of Safety Research. 2018,65, 153–159. doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2018.02.010 29776524

3. Ma X, Chen S, Chen F. Multivariate Space-time Modeling of Crash Frequencies by Injury Severity Levels. Analytic Methods in Accident Research. 2017,15, 29–40. doi: 10.1016/j.amar.2017.06.001

4. Nussbaumer C. Comparative Analysis of Safety in Tunnel. In Young Researchers Seminar. 2007.

5. Amundesen FH, Engelbrektsen A. Studies on Norwegian road tunnels II. An analysis on traffic accidents in road tunnels. Oslo, Norway: Vegdirektoratet, Road and Traffic Department, Traffic Department, Traffic Safety Section. 2009.

6. Caliendo C, De G, Maria L. Accident Rates in Road Tunnels and Social Cost Evaluation. Procedia Social Behavioral Sciences. 2007;53:166–177. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.870

7. Carvel R, Marlair G. A History of Fire Incidents in Tunnels. In: Beard A.N., Marlair G. (Eds.). The Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety. 2005;3–41.

8. Chiang DP, Brooks AM, Weir DH. On the Highway Measures of Driver Glance Behavior with an Example Automobile Navigation System. Applied Ergonomics. 2004;35(3);215–223. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2004.01.005 15145284

9. Chen F, Peng H, Ma X, Liang J, Hao W, Pan X. Examining the Safety of Trucks under Crosswind at Bridge-tunnel Section: A Driving Simulator Study. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2019;92;103034. doi: 10.1016/j.tust.2019.103034

10. Chen F, Chen S. Injury Severities of Truck Drivers in Single- and Multi-vehicle Accidents on Rural Highway. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2011;43;1677–1688. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2011.03.026 21658494

11. Ferdinando S, Iacopo G, Simone B. Energy Optimization of Road Tunnel Lighting Systems. Sustainability. 2015;7;9664–9680. doi: 10.3390/su7079664

12. Ferdinando S, Iacopo G, Emiliano B. Case Study on Economic Return on Investments for Safety and Emergency Lighting in Road Tunnels. Sustainability. 2015;7;9809–9822. doi: 10.3390/su7089809

13. Simons RH, Bean AR. Lighting Engineering: Applied Calculations. Routledge. 2008.

14. Nakamichi F, Narisada K, Yoshikawa K. Experiment on the Visibility of the Tunnel Entrance Lighting. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan. 1967;51(10);566–581.

15. Ragnar G, Munsterhjelm A, Zewi M. The Relation Between Concentration of Visual Purple and Retinal Sensitivity to Light During Dark Adaptation. Journal of Physiology. 1939;96(1);31. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.1939.sp003755

16. Noizet A, Ricard F. The ACTEURS project: Results from the Survey of Drivers Using the Tunnels Operated by the French Alpine Motorway Companies. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Tunnel Fires, T.M.I., 25 October, London, England.

17. Domenichini L, La TF, Vangi D, Virga A. Influence of the Lighting System on the Driver’s Behaviorin Road Tunnels: A Driving Simulator Study. Journal of Transportation Safety and Security. 2017;9(2);216–238. doi: 10.1080/19439962.2016.1173155

18. Ciro C, Maria L, De G, Maurizio G. A Crash Prediction Model for Road Tunnels. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2013;55;107–115. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.02.024

19. Zhao L, Jiang HP, Hu JB. Driver’s Physiological and Mental Reaction in Tunnel. ICCTP 2011. 2011;1760–1766. doi: 10.1061/41186(421)174

20. Alessandro C, Maria R, De B, Claudia G. An Empirical Study of the Effects of Road Tunnel on Driving Performance. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;53;1100–1110.

21. PIARC. Human Factors and Road Tunnel Safety Regarding Users. PIARC Technical Committee C3.3, Road Tunnel Operation, Report R17, Paris, 2008.

22. Katja K, Christer A. The Impact of Tunnel Design and Lighting on the Performance of Attentive and visually Distracted Drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2012;47:153–161. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2012.01.019

23. Sheila K, Thomas AD, Richard JC, Brian MH. The Impact of Driver Inattention on Near-Crash/Crash Risk: An Analysis using the 100-car Naturalistic Driving Study Data. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C. 2006.

24. Olson RL, Hanowski RJ, Hickman JS, Bocanegra J. Driver Distraction in Commercial Vehicle Operations: Report No. FMCSA-RRR-09-042. US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 2009.

25. Wu G, Chen F, Pan X, Xu M, Zhu X. Using the Visual Intervention Influence of Pavement Marking for Rutting Mitigation–Part I: preliminary experiments and field tests. International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 2019,20(6), 734–746. doi: 10.1080/10298436.2017.1334460

26. Zhu X, Dai Z, Chen F, Pan X, and Xu M. Using the Visual Intervention Influence of Pavement Marking for Rutting Mitigation–Part Π: Visual Intervention Timing Based on the Finite Element Simulation. International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 2019,20(5), 573–584. doi: 10.1080/10298436.2017.1316646

27. Kvaale J, Lotsberg G. Measures Against Monotony and Phobia in the 24.5 km Long Laerdal Tunnel in Norway. In: Krokeborg, J. (Ed.), Strait Crossings 2001: Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Strait Crossings, Bergen, Norway. Swets.

28. Wu Y, Zhao X, Rong J. Effects of Chevron Alignment Signs on Driver Eye Movements. Driving Performance and Stress. 2013.

29. Hammond JL, Wegmann FJ. Daytime Effects of Raised Pavement Markers on Horizontal Curves. Ite Journal. 2001;71(8);38–41.

30. Persaud B, Bahar G, Mollett C. Safety Evaluation of Permanent Raised Snow-Plowable Pavement Markers. Transportation Research Record. 2004;1897(1);148–155. doi: 10.3141/1897-19

31. Zwahlen HT, Jin YP. Curve Radius Perception Accuracy as Function of Number of Delineation Devices (chevrons). Thin Solid Films. 1995;518(2);518–521.

32. Chrysler S, Carlson P, Williams A. Simplifying Delineator Applications for Horizontal Curves. Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2004;(1);68–75. doi: 10.1177/0361198105191800109

33. Othman S, Thomson R, Lanner GW. Are Driving and Overtaking on Rightcurves More Dangerous than on Left Curves? In: Paper Presented at the Annalsof Advances in Automotive Medicine 54th Annual Scientific Conference, October 2010, Las Vegas, USA. 2001.

34. Sara N, So L, Andersson J. The Effect of Different Delineator Post Configurations on Driver Speed in Night-time Traffic: A Driving Simulator Study. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2014;(72);341–350.

35. Blaauw GJ. Vehicle Guidance by Delineation Systems at Night. Ergonomics. 1985;28(12);1601–1615. doi: 10.1080/00140138508963298 4085463

36. Zador P, Stein HS, Wright P, Hall J. Effects of Chevrons, Post-mounteddelineators, and Raised Pavement Markers on Driver Behavior at Roadway Curves. Transportation Research Record. 1987;1114;1–10.

37. Ihs A. The Effect of Road Equipment on Traffic Safety, Accessibility and Comfort, a Driving Simulator Study Regarding the Effect of Centre Line and Guideposts Respectively. In: VTI Report551. The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Link?ping, Sweden. 2006.

38. (JTG D70-2004) Code for Design of Road Tunnel. Beijing. 2004.

39. NiNa. Research on Traffic Characteristics and Security Assurance Technologies of Tunnel Intensive Section in Mountainous Freeway. Xi’an: Chang’an University. 2017.

40. Djamasbi S, Siegel M, Tullis T. Generation Y, Web Design, and Eye Tracking. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 2010,68(5), 307–323. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.12.006

41. Djamasbi S, Siegel M, Tullis T, Dai R. Efficiency, Trust, and Visual Appeal: Usability Testing through Eye Tracking. System Sciences (HICSS), 43rd Hawaii International Conference.2010.

42. Seo YW, Chae SW, Lee KC. The Impact of Human Brand Image Appeal on Visual Attention and Purchase Intentions at an E-Commerce Website. In ACIIDS 2012, Part III, LNAI 7198, edited by J.-S. Pan, S.-M. Chen, and N. T. Nguyen, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.2012.

43. Partala T, Surakka V. Pupil Size Variation as an Indication of Affective Processing. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 2003,51(2), 185–198. doi: 10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00017-X

44. Du ZG, Zhu SY, Pan XD. Experimental Study on Visual Adaptation of Highway Tunnel Based on Pupil Area Change. National Highway Science and Technology Innovation Forum. 2008.

45. Bradley MM, Miccoli L, Escrig MA, Lang PJ. The Pupil as a Measure of Emotional Arousal and Autonomic Activation. Psychophysiology. 2008,45(4), 602–607. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00654.x 18282202

46. Urry HL, Reekum CM, Johnstone T, Davidson RJ. Individual Differences in Some (But Not All) Medial Prefrontal Regions Reflect Cognitive Demand while Regulating Unpleasant Emotion. Neuroimage. 2009,47(3), 852–863. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.05.069 19486944

47. Cegarra J, Chevalier A. The Use of Tholos Software for Combining Measures of Mental Workload: Toward Theoretical and Methodological Improvements. Behavior Research Methods. 2008,40(4), 988–1000. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.4.988 19001390

48. Karatekin C. Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development. Developmental Review. 2007,27(3), 283–348. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2007.06.006


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 12