Changing landscape configuration demands ecological planning: Retrospect and prospect for megaherbivores of North Bengal

Autoři: Tanoy Mukherjee aff001;  Lalit Kumar Sharma aff001;  Mukesh Thakur aff001;  Goutam Kumar Saha aff002;  Kailash Chandra aff001
Působiště autorů: Zoological Survey of India, Prani Vigyan Bhawan, New Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal, India aff001;  Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Ballygunge, Kolkata, West Bengal, India aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


The Gorumara National Park (GNP) is an important conservation area located in the northern region of West Bengal State, India, as it provides habitat for three megaherbivores: Indian One-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and Gaurs (Bos gaurus). It harbours one of the last population of the one-horned rhino. In the present study, landscape change and configuration were investigated by comparing three Landsat images, from 1998, 2008 and 2018. The images were classified into six different landcover classes following standard methodology. The present study also involves evaluation of landscape and anthropogenic predictors influence on the megaherbivores of GNP, followed by future landcover simulation for the year 2028. The result shows a significant decrease in the grassland cover from 18.87 km2 to 8.27 km2 from 1998 to 2018, whereas the woodland cover has increased from 50.14 km2 to 62.09 km2 between 1998 and 2018. The landscape configuration indices such as Number of Patches (NP), Patch Density (PD), Interspersion and Juxtaposition (IJI), Aggregation Index (AI) and Mean Shape Index (SHAPE AM) indicated that the landscapes has lost complexity in the spatial placement of patches of different Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) classes. Also, the landscape over the three decades has become uniform in terms of diversity of patches, because of earlier plantation activities by the forest managers. Result also indicated that grassland, along with its class metrics are the top predictors contributing 43.6% in explaining the spatial distribution of megaherbivores in GNP. Results from the simulated landcover of 2028 suggest a possible decline in overall grassland by 6.23% and a subsequent upsurge in woodland by 6.09% from 2018. The present result will be useful in guiding the forest management in developing habitat improvement strategies for the long- term viability of megaherbivore populations of rhino, gaur and elephant in the GNP.

Klíčová slova:

Conservation science – Elephants – Forests – Grasses – Grasslands – Habitats – Surface water – Wildlife


1. Roy PS, Tomar S. Landscape cover dynamics in Meghalaya. Int J Remote Sens. 2001; 22: 3813–3825. doi: 10.1080/01431160010014008

2. Nagendra H, Munroe DK, Southworth J. From pattern to process: landscape fragmentation and the analysis of land use/land cover change. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2004; 101: 111–115.

3. Zheng D, Wallin DO, Hao Z. Rates and patterns of landscape change between 1972 and 1988 in the Changbai Mountain area of China and North Korea. Landscape Ecol. 1997; 12: 241–254.

4. Srivastava S, Singh TP, Singh H, Kushwaha SPS, Roy PS. Assessment of large-scale deforestation in Sonitpur district of Assam. Curr Sci. 2002; 82: 1479–1484.

5. Ostrom E, Nagendran H. Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground and in the laboratory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2006; 103: 224–231. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0506736102

6. Sarma PK, Talukdar BK, Sarma K, Barua M. Assessment of habitat change and threats to the greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, using multi-temporal satellite data. Pachyderm. 2009; 46: 18–24.

7. Kachhwaha TS. Temporal and multi-sensor approach in forest vegetation mapping and corridor identification for effective management of Rajaji National Park, Uttar Pradesh, India. Int J Remote Sens. 1993; 14; 3105–3114.

8. Nagendra H, Tucker C, Carlson L, Southworth J, Karmacharya M, Karna B. Monitoring parks through remote sensing: Studies in Nepal and Honduras. Environ Manage. 2004; 34: 748–760. doi: 10.1007/s00267-004-0028-7 15633028

9. Sarma PK, Lahkar BP, Ghosh S, Rabha A, Das JP, Nath NK, Land-use and land-cover change and future implication analysis in Manas National Park, India using multi-temporal satellite data. Curr Sci. 2008; 95:223–227.

10. Bayarsaikhan U, Boldgiv B, Kim KR, Park KA, Lee D. Change detection and classification of land cover at Hustai National Park in Mongolia. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf. 2009; 11: 273–280.

11. Kushwaha SPS, Roy PS, Azeem A, Boruah P, Lahan P. Land area changes and rhino habitat suitability analysis in Kaziranga NP, Assam. Tiger Paper. 2000; 27: 9–16.

12. Sukumar R. The Asian elephant: ecology and management. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1989.

13. Dinerstein E. An ecological survey of the Royal Karnali-Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Part I: vegetation, modifying factors, and successional relationships. Biol. Conserv. 1979; 15: 127–150.

14. Fritz H, Duncan P, Gordon IJ, Illius AW. Megaherbivores influence trophic guilds structure in African ungulate communities. Oecologia. 2002; 131: 620–625. doi: 10.1007/s00442-002-0919-3 28547558

15. Mukherjee N. A Brief Appraisal of Human wildlife conflict in Jalpaiguri and Alipurduar districts of West Bengal. Int J Sci Res Pub. 2016; 6: 131–136.

16. Liu Z, He C, Wu J. The relationship between habitat loss and fragmentation during urbanization: an empirical evaluation from 16 world cities. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0154613. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154613 27124180

17. Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J, Davies KF, Gonzalez A, Holt RD, et al. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Sci. Adv. 2015; 1: e1500052. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500052 26601154.

18. Wildlife Wing: Directorate of Forests Govt. of West Bengal. [cited 12.02.2019] Available from:

19. Mallick JK. Ecological crisis vis-à-vis intraspecific conflict: a case study with rhinos in Jaldapara and Gorumara National Parks, West Bengal, India. In: Gupta VK, Verma AK, editors. Animal Diversity, Natural History and Conservation; 2015. pp. 335–366.

20. Thapa K, Williams AC. Khaling SB. Observations on habitat preferences of translocated rhinos in Bardia National Park and Suklaphanta wildlife reserve, Nepal. Pachyderm. 2009; 45:108–114.

21. Laurie WA. The ecology and behaviour of the greater one-horned rhinoceros. PhD. Dissertation, Cambridge University. 1978.

22. Fjellstad JI and Steinheim G. Diet and habitat use of greater Indian one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during dry season in Babai Valley, Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis, Agricultural University of Norway. 1996.

23. Hazarika BC, Saikia PK. Food Habit and Feeding Patterns of Great Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, Assam, India. Int Sch Res Notices: Zool. 2012; 1–11. doi: 10.5402/2012/259695

24. Konwar P, Saikia MK, Saikia PK. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicornis Linn. In Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India. J Threat Taxa. 2009; 1: 457–460.

25. Ghosh SB. Biodiversity and wild fodder of Gorumara National Park in West Bengal, India. J. Ecol Env. 2012; 3: 18–35.

26. Debnath HS, Alfred JRB, Chowdhury BR, Saha R, Maity KLM, Mukherjee A. Impact of habitat management practices, especially canopy manipulation and grassland restoration, on the habitat use pattern of herbivores and the herbivores-carrying capacity in Jaldapara NP, Gorumara NP and Mahananda WLS. 2017 [cited 05 May 2019]. In Inception report from Nature Environment & Wildlife Society (NEWS). Available from: doi: 10.1586/17434440.4.6.815

27. Peden DG, Van Dyne GM, Rice RW, Hansen RM. The trophic ecology of Bison on short grass plains. Nat Res Ecol. 1974; 11: 489–497.

28. Nayak BK, Patra AK. Food and feeding habits of Indian Bison, (Smith, 1827) in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary, Balasore, Odisha, India and its conservation. Int Res J Biol Sci. 2015; 4: 73–79.

29. Chetri M. Food habit, habitat utilization and conservation of Gaur (Bos gaurus) in Parsa Wildlife Reserve Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Zoology Tribhuvan University Kathmandu Nepal. 1999.

30. Chetri M. Diet Analysis of Gaur (Bos gaurus Smith, 1827) by Micro Histological Analysis of Fecal Samples in Parsa Wildlife Reserve. Our Nat. 2007; 4: 20–28.

31. Haleem A, Ilyas O. Food and Feeding Habits of Gaur (Bos gaurus) in Highlands of Central India: A Case Study at Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh (India). Zool Sci. 2018; 35: 57–67. doi: 10.2108/zs170097 29417898

32. McKay GM. Behaviour and ecology of the Asiatic elephant in South-eastern Ceylon. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 1973; 125: 1–113.

33. Sivaganesan N, Johnsingh AJT. Food resources crucial to the wild elephants in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. In: Daniel JC, Datye HS, editors. A Week with Elephants. Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Conservation of Asian Elephant. Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University Press, Bombay, India; 1995. pp. 405–423.

34. Baskaran N, Balasubrmanian M, Swaminathan S, Desai AA. Feeding ecology of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linnaeus) in the Nilgiri biosphere reserve, southern India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 2010; 107: 3–13.

35. Roy M, Chowdhury S. Foraging Ecology of the Asian Elephant in Northern West Bengal. Gajah. 2014; 40: 18–25.

36. Molur S, Sukumar R, Seal U, Walker S. Report: Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (P.H.V.A) Workshop: Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros: Jaldapara. CBSG, Coimbatore; 1995. 85 pp.

37. Martin EB. Policies that work for rhino conservation in West Bengal. Pachyderm. 2006; 41: 74–84.

38. Bierwagen BG. Connectivity in urbanizing landscapes: The importance of habitat configuration, urban area size, and dispersal. Urban Ecosyst. 2007; 10: 29–42. doi: 10.1007/s11252-006-0011-6

39. Turner MG, Gardner RH. Quantitative techniques in landscape ecology-the analysis and interpretation of landscape heterogeneity. 1st ed. New York: Springer-Verlag press; 1991.

40. Worboys GL. Concept, purpose and challenges. In: Worboys GL, Lockwood M, Kothari A, Feary S, Pulsford I, editors. Protected Area Governance and Management. Canberra: ANU Press; 2015. pp. 9–42.

41. Heino M, Kummu M, Makkonen M, Mulligan M, Verburg PH, Jalava M, et al. Forest loss in protected areas and intact forest landscapes: a global analysis. PLoS ONE. 2015: 10(10): e0138918. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138918 26466348

42. Barnes BV, Zak DR, Denton SR, Spurr SH. Forest ecology. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1998.

43. Turner MG, Gardner RH, O’Neil RV. Ecological dynamics at broad scales; ecosystems and landscapes. BioScience Supplement. 1995; 45:S-29–S-33.

44. Goodland RJA, Daly HE, Serafy S. The urgent need for rapid transition to global environmental sustainability. Environ. Conserv. 1993; 20: 297–309.

45. Haila Y. A conceptual genealogy of fragmentation research: from island biogeography to landscape ecology. Ecol. Appl. 2002; 12: 321–334.[0321:ACGOFR]2.0.CO;2

46. Kupfer JA, Malanson GP, Franklin SB. Not seeing the ocean for the islands: the mediating influence of matrix-based processes on forest fragmentation effects. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 2006; 15: 8–20.

47. Laurance WF. Theory meets reality: how habitat fragmentation research has transcended island biogeographic theory. Biol Cons. 2008; 141: 1731–1744.

48. Chen J, Deng X, Zhang L, Bai Z. Diet composition and foraging ecology of Asian elephants in Shangyong, Xishuangbanna, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 2006; 26: 309–316.

49. Sitompul AF, Griffin CR, Rayl ND, Fuller TK. Spatial and temporal habitat use of an Asian Elephant in Sumatra. Animals. 2013; 3: 670–679. doi: 10.3390/ani3030670 26479527

50. Wadey J, Beyer HL, Saaban S, Othman N, Leimgruber P, Campos-Arceiz A. Why did the elephant cross the road? The complex response of wild elephants to a major road in Peninsular Malaysia. Biol Cons. 2018; 218: 91–98.

51. Huang C, Li X, Khanal L, Jiang X. Habitat suitability and connectivity inform a co-management policy of protected area network for Asian elephants in China. PeerJ. 2019; 19: 7:e6791. doi: 10.7717/peerj.6791 31041155

52. Verburg PH, Eck JRV, Hijs TCD, Dijst MJ, Schot P. Determination of land use change patterns in the Netherlands. Environ Plann B. 2004; 31: 125–150.

53. Agrawal C, Green G, Grove J, Evans T, Schweik C. A review and assessment of land-use change models: dynamics of space, time, and human choice. Delaware OH: USDA Forest Service. 2002;

54. Sinha P, Kimar L. Markov land cover change modeling using pairs of time-series satellite images. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 2013; 79: 1037–1051.

55. Weng Q. Land use change analysis in the Zhujiang Delta of China using satellite remote sensing, GIS and stochastic modelling. J Environ Manage. 2002; 64: 273–284. doi: 10.1006/jema.2001.0509 12040960

56. Calabrese A, Calabrese JM, Songer M, Wegmann M, Hedges S, Rose R, et al. Conservation status of Asian elephants: the influence of habitat and governance. Biodivers. Conserv. 2017; 26: 2067–2081. doi: 10.1007/s10531-017-1345-5

57. Weiers S, Bock M, Wissen M, Rossner G. Mapping and indicator approaches for the assessment of habitats at different scales using remote sensing and GIS methods. Landscape Urban Plann. 2004; 67: 43–65.

58. Weng YC. Spatiotemporal changes of landscape pattern in response to urbanization. ‎ Landscape Urban Plann. 2007; 81: 341–353.

59. Rodgers WA, Panwar HS, Mathur VB. Wildlife Protected Areas in India: A Review (Executive Summary). 1st ed. Dehradun: Wildlife Institute of India; 2002.

60. Sanyal AK, De JK, Das RP, Venkataraman K. Feasibility study regarding re-introduction of pygmy hog (Porcula salvania Hodgson, 1847) at Gorumara National Park, Jalpaigui, West Bengal. Rec Zool Surv India. 2013; 113: 1–24.

61. Tapas D, Bimal D. Management Plan of Gorumara National Park. West Bengal: Wild Life Circle, Government of West Bengal; 2017.

62. Champion HG, Seth SK. A revised survey of forest types of India. 1st ed. Delhi: Manager of Publications; 1968.

63. Ghatak S, Bhutia PT, Mitra A, Raha AK. Time Series Study of Rhino Habitat and its Impact on Rhino Population in Gorumara National Park through Remote Sensing Technology. Int. J environ agric biotechnol. 2016; 1: 328–333. doi: 10.22161/ijeab/1.3.3

64. Congedo L. Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin Documentation; 2016. Release Available from: doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29474.02242/1 Cited 17 May 2019.

65. Nguyen TA, Le PMT, Pham TM, Hoang HTT, Nguyen MQ, Ta HQ, et al. Toward a sustainable city of tomorrow: a hybrid Markov–Cellular Automata modeling for urban landscape evolution in the Hanoi city (Vietnam) during 1990–2030. Environ Dev Sustain. 2019; 21: 429–446. 1089/sus.2017.29092.aml

66. Liping C, Yujun S, Saeed S. Monitoring and predicting land use and land cover changes using remote sensing and GIS techniques—A case study of a hilly area, Jiangle, China. 2018; PLoS ONE 13(7): e0200493. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200493 30005084

67. Saputra, & Lee. (2019). Prediction of Land Use and Land Cover Changes for North Sumatra, Indonesia, Using an Artificial-Neural-Network-Based Cellular Automaton. Sustainability. 2019; 11: (11), 3024. doi: 10.3390/su11113024

68. Rahman MTU, Tabassum F, Rasheduzzaman M, Saba H, Sarkar L, Ferdous J, Temporal dynamics of land use/land cover change and its prediction using CA-ANN model for southwestern coastal Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess. 2017; 189: 3–18.

69. Mtui DT, Lepczyk CA, Chen Q, Miura T, Cox LJ. Assessing multi-decadal land-cover- land-use change in two wildlife protected areas in Tanzania using Landsat imagery. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(9): e0185468. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185468 28957397

70. McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Neel MC, Ene E. FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. Computer Software Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass, USA. 2002. Available from:

71. Haines-Young R., Chopping M. Quantifying landscape structure: a review of landscape indices and their application to forested landscapes. Prog Phys Geogr. 1996; 20: 418–445.

72. Dale VH, Pearson SM. Quantifying habitat fragmentation due to land-use change in Amazonia. In Laurance WF, Bierregaard RO, editors. Tropical Forest Remnants: ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities Chicago: Chicago Press; 1997.

73. Hastie TJ, Tibshirani RJ. Generalized additive models. 1st ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 1990.

74. Morisette JT, Jarnevich CS, Holcombe TR, Talbert CB, Ignizio D, Talbert MK et al. VisTrails SAHM: Visualization and workflow management for species habitat modeling. Ecography. 2013; 36: 129–135. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07815.x

75. Tao M, Xie P, Chen J, Qin B, Zhang D, Niu Y, et al. Use of a generalized additive model to investigate key abiotic factors affecting microcystin cellular quotas in heavy bloom areas of lake Taihu. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(2): e32020. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032020 22384128

76. Jogun T. The simulation model of land cover change in the Požega-Slavonia County. Diploma thesis, Faculty of Science, Department of Geography. 2016. Available from:

77. Li T, Li W. Multiple land use change simulation with Monte Carlo approach and CA-ANN model, a case study in Shenzhen, China. Environ Syst Res. 2015; 4:1.

78. NEXTGIS. MOLUSCE—quick and convenient analysis of land cover changes; 2013. E-Print. Available from: Accessed 10 July 2019.

79. Gessler PE, Moore ID, McKenzie NJ, Ryan PJ. Soil-landscape modeling and spatial prediction of soil attributes. Int J Geogr Inf Sci. 1995; 9: 421–432. doi: 10.1080/02693799508902047

80. Moore ID, Lewis A, Gallant JC. Terrain attributes: estimation methods and scale effectsaffected: Jakeman AJ Beck MB, MCaleer MJ editors. Modelling Change in Environmental Systems. Chichester: Wiley; 1993. pp. 189–214.

81. McCune B, Keon D. Equations for potential annual direct incident radiation and heat load index. J Veg Sci. 2002; 13: 603–606.

82. Iverson LR, Dale ME, Scott CT, Prasad A. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity of Ohio forests (U.S.A.). Landsc Ecol. 1997; 12: 331–348.

83. Evans JS, Oakleaf J, Cushman SA, Theobald D. An ArcGIS Toolbox for Surface Gradient and Geomorphometric Modeling, version 2.0–0; 2014. E-print. Available from: Cited 10 July 2019.

84. Roy M. A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Elephant-Human Conflict at Gorumara and Jalpaiguri Forest Divisions of Northern West Bengal. J Wildl Res. 2017; 5: 41–49.

85. Chakraborty S. Human-Animal Conflicts in Northern West Bengal: Losses on both sides. Int J Pure App Biosci 2015; 3: 35–44.

86. Prater SH. The book of Indian animals. 3rd ed. Bombay: Bombay natural history society; 1971.

87. Kafley H, Khadka M, Sharma M. Habitat evaluation and suitability modeling of Rhinoceros unicornis in Chitwan National Park, Nepal: A geospatial approach. A report submitted to Aloca Foundation, Institute of International Education, World Wildlife Fund, USA; 2008.

88. Jnawali SR. Population ecology of greater one-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) with particular emphasis on habitat preference, food ecology and ranging behavior of a reintroduced population in Royal Bardiya National Park in Low land Nepal. PhD. Thesis, Agricultural University of Norway. 1995. Available from: detail&id=1211098973.

89. Kandel RC. Aspects of foraging activity, habitat use and demography of rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis Linn) in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. M.Sc. dissertations, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. 2003.

90. Kandel RC, Jhala YV. Demographic Structure, Activity patterns, Habitat Use and Food Habits of Rhinoceros unicornis in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc. 2008; 105: 5–13.

91. Sarma PK, Mipun BS, Talukdar BK, Singh H, Basumatary AK, Das AK. Assessment of habitat utilization pattern of rhinos (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Orang National Park, Assam, India. Pachyderm. 2012; 51: 38–44.

92. Jarman PJ, Sinclair ARE. Feeding strategy and pattern of resource-partitioning in ungulates. In: Sinclair ARE, Norton-Griffiths M, editors. Serengeti: dynamics of an ecosystem. Chicago: University of Chicago; 1979. pp. 130–163.

93. Rimal S, Adhikari H, Tripathi S. Habitat suitability and threat analysis of Greater One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae) in Rautahat District, Nepal. J Threat Taxa. 2018; 10: 11999–12007.

94. Roy M, Sukumar R. Railways and Wildlife: A Case Study of Train-Elephant Collisions in Northern West Bengal, India. In: Borda-de-Água L, Barrientos R, Beja P, Pereira HM, editors. Railway Ecology. Cham: Springer Nature; 2017. pp. 157–177. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57496-7_10

95. Bremer LL, Farley KA. Does plantation forestry restore biodiversity or create green deserts? A synthesis of the effects of land-use transitions on plant species richness. Biodivers Conserv. 2010; 19: 3893–3915.

96. Ghosh C, Das AP. Rhino-Fodders in Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary in Duars of West Bengal, India. Our Nature. 2007; 5: 14–20. doi: 10.3126/on.v5i1.792

97. Manoj K, Bhattacharyya R, Padhy PK. Forest and Wildlife Scenarios of Northern West Bengal, India: A Review. Int. Res. J. Biological Sci. 2013; 2: 70–79.

98. Jhala YV, Qureshi Q, Naya AK. Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India 2018. Summary Report. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India, New Delhi & Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun; 2019. TR No./2019/05. Available from: 20Status%20Report_XPS220719032%20%20new%20layout(1).pdf. Cited 10 July 2019

99. Bhattarai BP, Kindlmann P. Interactions between Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) and leopard (Panthera pardus): implications for their conservation. Biodivers Conserv. 2012; 21: 2075–2094.

100. Agarwalla RP. IRV 2020 overview. In: Ellis S, Miller PS, Agarwalla RP, Yadava MK, Ghosh S, Sivakumar P. (Eds.) Indian Rhino Vision 2020 Population Modeling Workshop Final Report. Guwahati, Assam, India. International Rhino Foundation; 2015. pp. 4–72.

101. Dasgupta S. Rhinos to be relocated to Two New Sites in West Bengal. The WIRE. 23 Nov 2016. [Cited 2019 March 19] Available from:

102. Verbyla DL, Boles SH. Bias in land cover change estimates due to misregistration. Int J. Remote Sens. 2000; 21: 3553–3560.

103. Sankaran M, Ratnam J, Hanan N. Woody cover in African savannas: the role of resources, fire and herbivory. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 2008; 17: 236–245.

104. Scanlon TM, Albertson JD, Caylor KK, Williams CA. Determining land surface fractional cover from NDVI and rainfall time series for a savanna ecosystem. Remote Sens. Environ. 2002; 82: 376–388.

105. Kikula IS. The influence of fire on the composition of miombo woodland of sw Tanzania. Oikos. 1986; 46: 317–324. doi: 10.2307/3565829

106. Holdo RM. Elephant herbivory, frost damage and topkill in Kalahari sand woodland savanna trees. J. Veg. Sci. 2006; 17: 509–518. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2006.tb02472.x

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden