A framework for the development of a global standardised marine taxon reference image database (SMarTaR-ID) to support image-based analyses

Autoři: Kerry L. Howell aff001;  Jaime S. Davies aff001;  A. Louise Allcock aff002;  Andreia Braga-Henriques aff003;  Pål Buhl-Mortensen aff005;  Marina Carreiro-Silva aff006;  Carlos Dominguez-Carrió aff006;  Jennifer M. Durden aff008;  Nicola L. Foster aff001;  Chloe A. Game aff009;  Becky Hitchin aff010;  Tammy Horton aff008;  Brett Hosking aff008;  Daniel O. B. Jones aff008;  Christopher Mah aff011;  Claire Laguionie Marchais aff002;  Lenaick Menot aff012;  Telmo Morato aff006;  Tabitha R. R. Pearman aff008;  Nils Piechaud aff001;  Rebecca E. Ross aff001;  Henry A. Ruhl aff008;  Hanieh Saeedi aff014;  Paris V. Stefanoudis aff017;  Gerald H. Taranto aff006;  Michael B. Thompson aff019;  James R. Taylor aff020;  Paul Tyler aff021;  Johanne Vad aff022;  Lissette Victorero aff023;  Rui P. Vieira aff020;  Lucy C. Woodall aff016;  Joana R. Xavier aff027;  Daniel Wagner aff029
Působiště autorů: School of Biological and Marine Science, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, United Kingdom aff001;  Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland aff002;  MARE-Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Estação de Biologia Marinha do Funchal, Cais do Carvão, Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal aff003;  ARDITI-Regional Agency for the Development of Research, Technology and Innovation, Oceanic Observatory of Madeira (OOM), Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, Funchal, Portugal aff004;  Institute of Marine Research,Nordnes, Bergen, Norway aff005;  Okeanos Research Centre, Universidade dos Açores, Departamento de Oceanografia e Pesca, Horta, Portugal aff006;  IMAR Instituto do Mar, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE), Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Portugal aff007;  National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton, United Kingdom aff008;  School of Computing Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom aff009;  JNCC, Inverdee House, Aberdeen, United Kingdom aff010;  Dept. of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., United States of America aff011;  Ifremer, Centre de Bretagne, Plouzané, France aff012;  Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, United States of America aff013;  Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum; Department of Marine Zoology, Frankfurt am Main, Germany aff014;  Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute for Ecology, Diversity and Evolution, Frankfurt am Main, Germany aff015;  OBIS Data Manager, Deep-Sea Node aff016;  Nekton Foundation, Begbroke Science Park, Begbroke Hill, Begbroke, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom aff017;  Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Zoology Research and Administration Building, Oxford, United Kingdom aff018;  Gardline Limited, Endeavour House, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, United Kingdom aff019;  Senckenberg am Meer, German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research (DZMB), Martin-Luthur-King-Platz, Hamburg, Germany aff020;  School of Ocean and Earth Science National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton, United Kingdom aff021;  Grant Institute, School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, United Kingdom aff022;  Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), CNRS, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle,Sorbonne Université, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France aff023;  Biologie des Organismes et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques (BOREA), CNRS, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle,Sorbonne Université, Université de Caen Normandie, Université des Antilles, IRD, Paris, France aff024;  Centre d'Écologie et des Sciences de la Conservation (CESCO), CNRS, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle,Sorbonne Université, Paris, France aff025;  Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Lowestoft, Suffolk, United Kingdom aff026;  CIIMAR–Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research of the University of Porto, Matosinhos, Portugal aff027;  University of Bergen, Department of Biological Sciences and KG Jebsen Centre for Deep-Sea Research, Bergen, Norway aff028;  NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America aff029
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218904


Video and image data are regularly used in the field of benthic ecology to document biodiversity. However, their use is subject to a number of challenges, principally the identification of taxa within the images without associated physical specimens. The challenge of applying traditional taxonomic keys to the identification of fauna from images has led to the development of personal, group, or institution level reference image catalogues of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) or morphospecies. Lack of standardisation among these reference catalogues has led to problems with observer bias and the inability to combine datasets across studies. In addition, lack of a common reference standard is stifling efforts in the application of artificial intelligence to taxon identification. Using the North Atlantic deep sea as a case study, we propose a database structure to facilitate standardisation of morphospecies image catalogues between research groups and support future use in multiple front-end applications. We also propose a framework for coordination of international efforts to develop reference guides for the identification of marine species from images. The proposed structure maps to the Darwin Core standard to allow integration with existing databases. We suggest a management framework where high-level taxonomic groups are curated by a regional team, consisting of both end users and taxonomic experts. We identify a mechanism by which overall quality of data within a common reference guide could be raised over the next decade. Finally, we discuss the role of a common reference standard in advancing marine ecology and supporting sustainable use of this ecosystem.

Klíčová slova:

Biodiversity – Catalogs – Databases – Marine biology – Marine ecology – Marine ecosystems – Sponges – Taxonomy


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