1. Simenstad C, Cailliet GM. Contemporary studies on fish feeding. Springer Science \& Business Media; 2013.
2. Strøm JF, Rikardsen AH, Campana SE, Righton D, Carr J, Aarestrup K, et al. Ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon. Scientific reports. Nature Publishing Group; 2019;9(1):7890. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44041-5 31133666
3. Navarro J, Coll M, Preminger M, Palomera I. Feeding ecology and trophic position of a Mediterranean endemic ray: consistency between sexes, maturity stages and seasons. Environmental Biology of Fishes. Springer; 2013;1–14.
4. Chipps SR, Garvey JE. Assessment of food habits and feeding patterns. Analysis and interpretation of freshwater fisheries data American Fisheries Society, Bethesda. 2007;473–514.
5. Astthorsson OS, Valdimarsson H, Gudmundsdottir A, Óskarsson GJ. Climate-related variations in the occurrence and distribution of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Icelandic waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Oxford University Press; 2012;fss084.
6. Valdimarsson H, Astthorsson OS, Palsson J. Hydrographic variability in Icelandic waters during recent decades and related changes in distribution of some fish species. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Oxford University Press; 2012;69(5):816–25.
7. Astthorsson OS, Gislason A, Jonsson S. Climate variability and the Icelandic marine ecosystem. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. Elsevier; 2007;54(23):2456–77.
8. Olafsdottir AH, Slotte A, Jacobsen JA, Oskarsson GJ, Utne KR, Nøttestad L. Changes in weight-at-length and size-at-age of mature Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) from 1984 to 2013: effects of mackerel stock size and herring (Clupea harengus) stock size. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Oxford University Press; 2015;fsv142.
9. ICES. Interim Report of the Working Group on Integrated Ecosystem Assessments for the Norwegian Sea (WGINOR). ICES WGINOR REPORT 2018. 26–30 November 2018. Reykjavik, Iceland.: ICES CM 2018/IEASG: 10; 2019;
10. Nøttestad L, Utne KR, Óskarsson GJ, Jónsson SÞ, Jacobsen JA, Tangen Ø, et al. Quantifying changes in abundance, biomass, and spatial distribution of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic seas from 2007 to 2014. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Oxford University Press; 2015;73(2):359–73.
11. ICES. Cruise report from the International Ecosystem Summer Survey in the Nordic Seas (IESSNS) 30th of June– 6th of August 2018. Working Document to ICES Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE). Havstovan, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, 28 August– 3 September 2018. 2018;39.
12. Olafsdottir AH, Utne KR, Jacobsen JA, Jansen T, Óskarsson GJ, Nøttestad L, et al. Geographical expansion of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic Seas from 2007 to 2016 was primarily driven by stock size and constrained by low temperatures. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. Elsevier; 2019;159:152–68.
13. Utne KR, Huse G, Ottersen G, Holst JC, Zabavnikov V, Jacobsen JA, et al. Horizontal distribution and overlap of planktivorous fish stocks in the Norwegian Sea during summers 1995–2006. Marine Biology Research. Taylor \& Francis; 2012;8(5–6):420–41.
14. Nøttestad L, Diaz J, Penã H, Søiland H, Huse G, Fernӧ A. Feeding strategy of mackerel in the Norwegian Sea relative to currents, temperature, and prey. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Oxford University Press; 2015;73(4):1127–37.
15. Nikolioudakis N, Skaug H, Olafsdottir A, Jansen T, Jacobsen J, Enberg K. Drivers of the summer-distribution of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic Seas from 2011 to 2017; a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2018; doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx225
16. Bachiller E, Skaret G, Nøttestad L, Slotte A. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea. PloS one. Public Library of Science; 2016;11(2):e0149238. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149238 26895485
17. Jansen T. Pseudocollapse and rebuilding of North Sea mackerel (Scomber scombrus). ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Oxford University Press; 2014;71(2):299–307.
18. Pepin P, Koslow J, Pearre S Jr. Laboratory study of foraging by Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, on natural zooplankton assemblages. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. NRC Research Press; 1988;45(5):879–87.
19. Macy WK, Sutherland SJ, Durbin EG. Effects of zooplankton size and concentration and light intensity on the feeding behavior of. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 1998;172:89–100.
20. Óskarsson GJ, Gudmundsdottir A, Sveinbjӧrnsson S, Sigurdsson T. Feeding ecology of mackerel and dietary overlap with herring in Icelandic waters. Marine Biology Research. Taylor \& Francis; 2016;12(1):16–29.
21. ICES. Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE). ICES Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019;36:948 pp. Available from: http://doi.org/10.17895/ices.pub.5574
22. Mehl S, Westgård T. The diet and consumption of mackerel in the North Sea (a preliminary report). 1983;
23. Dahl K, Kirkegaard E. Stomach contents of mackerel, horse mackerel and whiting in the eastern part of the North Sea in July 1985. Danmarks Fiskeri-og Havundersøgelser; 1986.
24. Pepin P, Pearre S Jr, Koslow J. Predation on Larval Fish by Atlantic Mackerel Scomber scombrus, with a Comparison of Predation by Zooplankton. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. NRC Research Press; 1987;44(11):2012–8.
25. Langøy H, Nøttestad L, Skaret G, Broms C, Fernӧ A. Feeding ecology of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Norwegian Sea. 2006.
26. Debes H, Homrum E, Jacobsen JA, Hátún H, Danielsen J. The feeding ecology of pelagic fish in the southwestern Norwegian Sea-Inter species food competition between Herring (Clupea harengus) and mackerel (Scomber scombrus). ICES CM. 2012;1000:07.
27. Skaret G, Bachiller E, Langøy H, Stenvik EK. Mackerel predation on herring larvae during summer feeding in the Norwegian Sea. Ices Journal of Marine Science. 2015;
28. Engelhard GH, Peck MA, Rindorf A, Smout SC, van Deurs M, Raab K, et al. Forage fish, their fisheries, and their predators: who drives whom? Ices Journal of Marine Science. 2014;
29. Vikingsson GA, Pike DG, Valdimarsson H, Schleimer A, Gunnlaugsson T, Silva T, et al. Distribution, abundance, and feeding ecology of baleen whales in Icelandic waters: have recent environmental changes had an effect? Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. Frontiers; 2015;3:6.
30. Vigfusdottir F, Gunnarsson TG, Gill JA. Annual and between-colony variation in productivity of Arctic Terns in West Iceland. Bird study. Taylor \& Francis; 2013;60(3):289–97.
31. Bailey K, Houde E. Predation on eggs and larvae of marine fishes and the recruitment problem. Advances in marine biology. Elsevier; 1989. p. 1–83.
32. Jonsson S, Valdimarsson H. Recent developments in oceanographic research in Icelandic waters. Caseldine C. Russell A. Hardardottir J. Knudsen O., editor. Iceland—Modern Processes and Past Environments. Elsevier, Amsterdam; 2005;pp. 79–92.
33. Valdimarsson H, Malmberg S-A. Near-surface circulation in Icelandic waters derived from satellite tracked drifters. Rit Fiskideild. 1999;16:23–40.
34. Jónsson S. Sources of fresh water in the Iceland Sea and the mechanisms governing its interannual variability. ICES mar Sci Symp. 1992;195:62–7.
35. Hanna E, Jónsson T, Ólafsson J, Valdimarsson H. Icelandic Coastal Sea Surface Temperature Records Constructed: Putting the Pulse on Air Sea Climate Interactions in the Northern North Atlantic. Part I: Comparison with HadISST1 Open-Ocean Surface Temperatures and Preliminary Analysis of Long-Term Patterns and Anomalies of SSTs around Iceland. Journal of Climate. 2006;19:5652–66.
36. Godø OR, Hjellvik V, Iversen SA, Slotte A, Tenningen E, Torkelsen T. Behaviour of mackerel schools during summer feeding migration in the Norwegian Sea, as observed from fishing vessel sonars. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Oxford University Press; 2004;61(7):1093–9.
37. Stefánson U. North Icelandic waters. Atvinnudeild Háskólans, Fiskideild; 1962.
38. Astthorsson OS, Gislason A. Long-term changes in zooplankton biomass in Icelandic waters in spring. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Oxford University Press; 1995;52(3–4):657–68.
39. Nilsen JE \O, Falck E. Variations of mixed layer properties in the Norwegian Sea for the period 1948–1999. Progress in Oceanography. Elsevier; 2006;70(1):58–90.
40. Hyslop EJ. Stomach contents analysis—a review of methods and their application. Journal of Fish Biology. Wiley Online Library; 1980;17(4):411–29.
41. Brown SC, Bizzarro JJ, Cailliet GM, Ebert DA. Breaking with tradition: redefining measures for diet description with a case study of the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica (Gilbert 1896). Environmental Biology of Fishes. Springer; 2012;95(1):3–20.
42. Amundsen PA, Gabler HM, Staldvik FJ. A new approach to graphical analysis of feeding strategy from stomach contents data—Modification of the Costello (1990) method. Journal of Fish Biology. 1996;48(4):607–14.
43. Anderson MJ. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol. Wiley Online Library; 2001;26(1):32–46.
44. Hammer Ø, Harper D, Ryan P. PAST-Palaeontological statistics. www uv es/\~ pardomv/pe/2001\_1/past/pastprog/past pdf, acessado em. 2001;25(07):2009.
45. Santić M, Rađa B, Pallaoro A. Diet and feeding strategy of thornback ray Raja clavata. J Fish Biol. 2012;81(3):1070–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03382.x 22880738
46. Clarke K, Warwick R. An approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Change in marine communities. 1994;2:117–43.
47. Sneath PH, Sokal RR, others. Numerical taxonomy. The principles and practice of numerical classification. 1973.
48. Hastie T, Tibshirani R. Generalized Additive Models. Chapman\&Hall/CRC. Monographs on Statistics \& Applied Probability Chapman and Hall/CRC. 1990;1.
49. Wood SN. Generalized additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC; 2017.
50. Jansen T, Post S, Olafsdottir AH, Reynisson P, Óskarsson GJ, Arendt KE. Diel vertical feeding behaviour of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Irminger current. Fisheries Research. Elsevier; 2019;214:25–34.
51. Hall SJ, Gurney WS, Dobby H, Basford DJ, Heaney SD, Robertson MR. Inferring feeding patterns from stomach contents data. Journal of Animal Ecology. JSTOR; 1995;39–62.
52. Wood SN. Fast stable restricted maximum likelihood and marginal likelihood estimation of semiparametric generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology). 2011;73(1):3–6.
53. Barton K. MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference [Internet]. R package v. 1.42.1. 2018. Available from: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MuMIn/index.html
54. Anderson D, Burnham K. Model selection and multi-model inference. Second NY: Springer-Verlag. 2004;
55. Gislason A. Seasonal and spatial variability in egg production and biomass of Calanus finmarchicus around Iceland. Marine ecology Progress series. Inter-Research; 2005;286:177–92.
56. Gislason A, Astthorsson OS. The food of Norwegian spring-spawning herring in the western Norwegian Sea in relation to the annual cycle of zooplankton. Sarsia: North Atlantic Marine Science. 2002;87(3):236–47.
57. Prokopchuk I, Sentyabov E. Diets of herring, mackerel, and blue whiting in the Norwegian Sea in relation to Calanus finmarchicus distribution and temperature conditions. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Oxford University Press; 2006;63(1):117–27.
58. Langøy H, Nøttestad L, Skaret G, Broms C, Fernӧ A. Overlap in distribution and diets of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) in the Norwegian Sea during late summer. Marine biology research. Taylor \& Francis; 2012;8(5–6):442–60.
59. Darbyson E, Swain D, Chabot D, Castonguay M. Diel variation in feeding rate and prey composition of herring and mackerel in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence. Journal of Fish Biology. Wiley Online Library; 2003;63(5):1235–57.
60. Plourde S, Grégoire F, Lehoux C, Galbraith PS, Castonguay M. Effect of environmental variability on the Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) stock dynamics in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2014/092. 2014.
61. Astthorsson OS, Gislason A. Investigations on the ecology of the zooplankton community in Isafjord-deep, northwest Iceland. Sarsia. Taylor \& Francis; 1992;77(3–4):225–36.
62. Beare DJ, Gislason A, Astthorsson OS, E. M. Assessing long-term changes in early summer zooplankton communities around Iceland. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2000;57(6):1545–61.
63. Gislason A, Petursdottir H, Astthorsson OS, Gudmundsson K, Valdimarsson H. Inter-annual variability in abundance and community structure of zooplankton south and north of Iceland in relation to environmental conditions in spring 1990–2007. Journal of Plankton Research. 2009;31(5):541–51.
64. Gislason A, Astthorsson OS. Distribution patterns of zooplankton communities around Iceland in spring. Sarsia: North Atlantic Marine Science. Taylor \& Francis; 2004;89(6):467–77.
65. Silva T, Gislason A, Astthorsson OS, Marteinsdottir G. Abundance and distribution of early life stages of krill around Iceland during spring. Marine Biology Research. Taylor \& Francis; 2016;12(8):864–73.
66. Gislason A, Silva T. Abundance, composition, and development of zooplankton in the Subarctic Iceland Sea in 2006, 2007, and 2008. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. 2012;69:1263–76.
67. Jónsdóttir IG, Bjӧrnsson H, Skuladottir U. Predation by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua on northern shrimp Pandalus borealis in inshore and offshore areas of Iceland. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2012;469:223–32.
68. Eiríksson H, Jónasson JP. The fishery and stock assessment of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in Icelandic waters during 1950‐2016. Haf‐ og vatnarannsóknir HV2018‐25; 2018.
69. Gunnarsson B, Jónasson JP, Logemann Kai, Marteinsdóttir G, Óskarsson GJ. Recent occurrence and origin of juvenile Atlantic mackerel(Scomber scombrus L.) in Icelandic waters. Haf‐ og vatnarannsóknir HV 2019–03; 2019.
70. Sakamoto T. Studies on fishery biology of the ribbon fish, Trichiurus lepturus, Linne, in the Kii channel. Wakayama pref Fish Sta. 1982;111–5.
71. Brinton E. Vertical Migration and Avoidance Capability of Euphausiids in the California Current. Limnology and Oceanography. 1967;12(3):451–83.
72. Gibson RN, Ezzi IA. The relative profitability of particulate- and filter-feeding in the herring, Clupea harengus L. Journal of Fish Biology. 1992;40:577–90.
73. Bachiller E, Utne KR, Jansen T, Huse G. Bioenergetics modeling of the annual consumption of zooplankton by pelagic fish feeding in the Northeast Atlantic. PloS one. Public Library of Science; 2018;13(1):e0190345.
74. Lambert TC. Gastric emptying time and assimilation efficiency in Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Canadian journal of zoology. NRC Research Press; 1985;63(4):817–20.
75. Temming A, Bøhle B, Skagen D, Knudsen F. Gastric evacuation in mackerel: the effects of meal size, prey type and temperature. Journal of Fish Biology. Wiley Online Library; 2002;61(1):50–70.
76. Weidner T, Hirons A, Leavitt A, Kerstetter D. Combined gut-content and stable isotope trophic analysis of the pelagic stingray Pteroplaytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) diet from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. Wiley Online Library; 2017; doi: 10.1111/jai.13371
77. McClain-Counts JP, Demopoulos AW, Ross SW. Trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the Gulf of Mexico revealed by gut content and stable isotope analyses. Marine Ecology. Wiley Online Library; 2017;38(4):e12449.
78. Young T, Pincin J, Neubauer P, Ortega-Garc’\ia S, Jensen OP. Investigating diet patterns of highly mobile marine predators using stomach contents, stable isotope, and fatty acid analyses. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Oxford University Press; 2018;75(5):1583–90.
79. Madgett AS, Yates K, Webster L, McKenzie C, Moffat CF. Understanding marine food web dynamics using fatty acid signatures and stable isotope ratios: Improving contaminant impacts assessments across trophic levels. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. Elsevier; 2019;227:106327.
80. Harms-Tuohy CA, Schizas NV, Appeldoorn RS. Use of DNA metabarcoding for stomach content analysis in the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in Puerto Rico. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2016;558:181–91.
81. Broms C, Melle W, Horne JK. Navigation mechanisms of herring during feeding migration: the role of ecological gradients on an oceanic scale. Marine Biology Research. Taylor \& Francis; 2012;8(5–6):461–74.
82. Frederiksen M, Anker-Nilssen T, Beaugrand G, Wanless S. Climate, copepods and seabirds in the boreal Northeast Atlantic—current state and future outlook. Glob Chang Biol. 2013;19(2):364–72. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12072 23504776
83. Guillemette M, Grégoire F, Bouillet D, Rail J-F, Bolduc F, Caron A, et al. Breeding failure of seabirds in relation to fish depletion: Is there one universal threshold of food abundance? Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2018;587:235–45.
84. Stige LC, Kvile KØ, Bogstad B, Langangen Ø. Predator-prey interactions cause apparent competition between marine zooplankton groups. Ecology. Wiley Online Library; 2018;99(3):632–41. doi: 10.1002/ecy.2126 29281755
85. Berge J, Heggland K, Lønne OJ, Cottier F, Hop H, Gabrielsen GW, et al. First records of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, with possible explanations for the extension of its distribution. Arctic. 2015;68:54–61.
86. Nøttestad L, Sivle LD, Krafft BA, Langård L, Anthonypillai V, Bernasconi M, et al. Prey selection of offshore killer whales Orcinus orca in the Northeast Atlantic in late summer: spatial associations with mackerel. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2014; doi: 10.3354/meps10820
87. Nilssen KT, Lindstrøm U, Westgaard JI, Lindblom L, Blencke T-R, Haug T. Diet and prey consumption of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Norway. Marine Biology Research. Taylor \& Francis; 2019;15(2):137–49.