Seroprevalence of rubella virus antibodies among pregnant women in the Center and South-West regions of Cameroon


Autoři: Nadesh Ashukem Taku aff001;  Valantine Ngum Ndze aff002;  Emily Abernathy aff003;  LiJuan Hao aff003;  Diane Waku-Kouomou aff003;  Joseph P. Icenogle aff003;  Samuel Wanji aff001;  Jane-Francis K. T. Akoachere aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon aff001;  Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon aff002;  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff003;  IHRC Inc, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225594

Souhrn

Rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to miscarriages, fetal death, or birth of an infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In Cameroon, like in many developing countries, rubella surveillance is not well-established. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rubella virus specific antibodies among pregnant Cameroonians. We conducted a cross-sectional study for rubella infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Center and South-West regions of Cameroon. Demographic data and blood were collected and tested for rubella specific antibodies (IgG and IgM), and for the IgM positive cases, IgG avidity and real time PCR was done. From December 2015 to July 2017, 522 serum samples were collected and tested from pregnant women. The seroprevalence of rubella specific IgG was 94.4%, presumably due to immunity induced by wild-type rubella virus. The seroprevalence of rubella specific IgM was 5.0%, possibly indicating rubella infection. However, IgG avidity testing of the IgM positive cases detected high avidity IgGs, ranging from 52.37% to 87.70%, indicating past rubella infection. 5.6% (29/522) of the participants had negative results for IgG to rubella virus, indicating susceptibility to rubella infection. None of the participants had received a rubella containing vaccine (RCV), but 51% (266/522) of the pregnant women lived in a house with a child with records of at least one dose of RCV. Rubella virus RNA was not detected in the urine of any IgM positive case. Findings from this study show that rubella infection is significant in Cameroon. Some pregnant women are still susceptible to rubella infection. For a better management of rubella infection in pregnancy in Cameroon, consideration should be taken to investigate for IgG-avidity test in cases with positive rubella IgM result to distinguish between recent from past rubella infection.

Klíčová slova:

Antibodies – Cameroon – Enzyme-linked immunoassays – Pregnancy – Respiratory infections – Rubella – Rubella virus – Urine


Zdroje

1. WHO. Rubella vaccines. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2000;75(21):161–72.

2. WHO. Status Report on Progress Towards Measles and Rubella Elimination SAGE Working Group on Measles and Rubella (22 October 2012) 2012 [Available from: https://www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2012/november/1_Status_Report_Measles_Rubella_22_Oct.pdf.

3. Miller E, Cradock-Watson JE, Pollock TM. Consequences of confirmed maternal rubella at successive stages of pregnancy. Lancet. 1982;2(8302):781–4. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(82)92677-0 6126663

4. Fenner F. Candidate viral diseases for elimination or eradication. Bull World Health Organ. 1998;76 Suppl 2:68–70.

5. Reef SE, Redd SB, Abernathy E, Zimmerman L, Icenogle JP. The epidemiological profile of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the United States, 1998–2004: the evidence for absence of endemic transmission. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43 Suppl 3:S126–32.

6. Munteh YN. Cameroon: Measles/Rubella—Littoral: 1.2 Million Children for Vaccination. Cameroon Tribune. 2015.

7. Ndumbe PM, Andela A, Nkemnkeng-Asong J, Watonsi E, Nyambi P. Prevalence of infections affecting the child among pregnant women in Yaounde, Cameroon. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1992;181(3):127–30. doi: 10.1007/bf00202052 1522822

8. Fokunang CN, Chia J, Mbu P, Atashili J. Clinical studies on seroprevalence of rubella virus in pregnant women of Cameroon regions. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. 2010;11(2):79–94.

9. Noubom M, Kombou T, DG., Sama L, Wam E, Sadjeu S, Kenfack B, et al. Seroprevalence of Rubella IgM and IgG Antibodies and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Bafoussam Regional Hospital, West Region of Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Diseases. 2018;6(4).

10. Achonduh-Atijegbe OA, Mfuh KO, Mbange AH, Chedjou JP, Taylor DW, Nerurkar VR, et al. Prevalence of malaria, typhoid, toxoplasmosis and rubella among febrile children in Cameroon. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):658. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1996-y 27825318

11. Nimpa Mengouo M, Ndze VN, Baonga F, Kobela M, Wiysonge CS. Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008–2014. BMJ Open. 2017;7(4):e012959. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012959 28389483

12. Njoh AA, Njoh SN, Abizou MB. Fetal malformation in maternal toxoplasma and rubella co-infection in Cameroon: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2016;10(1):345. doi: 10.1186/s13256-016-1133-y 27912790

13. Jivraj I, Rudnisky CJ, Tambe E, Tipple G, Tennant MT. Identification of ocular and auditory manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome in mbingo. Int J Telemed Appl. 2014;2014:981312. doi: 10.1155/2014/981312 25525427

14. Thomas HI, Morgan-Capner P, Enders G, O'Shea S, Caldicott D, Best JM. Persistence of specific IgM and low avidity specific IgG1 following primary rubella. Journal of virological methods. 1992;39(1–2):149–55. doi: 10.1016/0166-0934(92)90133-x 1430059

15. Zhu Z, Xu W, Abernathy ES, Chen M, Zheng Q, Wang T, et al. Comparison of four methods using throat swabs to confirm rubella virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45(9):2847–2852. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00289-07 17596370

16. Wondimeneh Y, Tiruneh M, Ferede G, Abera B, Workineh M, Birhanie M, et al. Rubella virus infections and immune status among pregnant women before the introduction of rubella vaccine in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Int J Infect Dis. 2018;76:14–22. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2018.07.024 30165188

17. Tahita MC, Hubschen JM, Tarnagda Z, Ernest D, Charpentier E, Kremer JR, et al. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Burkina Faso. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:164. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-164 23556510

18. Adam O, Makkawi T, Kannan A, Osman ME. Seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Khartoum state, Sudan. East Mediterr Health J. 2013;19(9):812–5. 24313044

19. Adewumi OM, Olayinka OA, Olusola BA, Faleye TO, Sule WF, Adesina O. Epidemiological Evaluation of Rubella Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2015;36(6):613–21. doi: 10.1080/15321819.2015.1027404 25774539

20. Mirambo MM, Majigo M, Scana SD, Mushi MF, Aboud S, Gross U, et al. Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls in Tanzania: the need to vaccinate child bearing aged women. BMC Womens Health. 2018;18(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s12905-017-0505-9 29298693

21. Alleman MM, Wannemuehler KA, Hao L, Perelygina L, Icenogle JP, Vynnycky E, et al. Estimating the burden of rubella virus infection and congenital rubella syndrome through a rubella immunity assessment among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Potential impact on vaccination policy. Vaccine. 2016;34(51):6502–11. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.059 27866768

22. Reef SE, Plotkin SA. Rubella vaccine. In: Plotkin S, Orenstein W, Offit P, editors. vaccines. 6th: Elsevier; 2012. p. 688–717.

23. Anderson MJ, Kidd IM, Morgan-Capner P. Human parvovirus and rubella-like illness. Lancet. 1985;2(8456):663.

24. Public-Health-England. Guidance on viral rash in pregnancy 2011 [Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/viral-rash-in-pregnancy.

25. Best JM, Enders G. Laboratory Diagnosis of Rubella and Congenital Rubella. Banatvala J, Peckham C, editors: Elsevier; 2006.

26. Best JM. Rubella. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;12(3):182–92. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.017 17337363

27. Abernathy E, Cabezas C, Sun H, Zheng Q, Chen MH, Castillo-Solorzano C, et al. Confirmation of rubella within 4 days of rash onset: comparison of rubella virus RNA detection in oral fluid with immunoglobulin M detection in serum or oral fluid. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2009;47(1):182–8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01231-08 19005151


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11