Prevalence and risk factors for multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli among poultry workers in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

Autoři: Mabel Kamweli Aworh aff001;  Jacob Kwaga aff003;  Emmanuel Okolocha aff003;  Nwando Mba aff004;  Siddhartha Thakur aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Veterinary and Pest Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Abuja, Nigeria aff001;  Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria aff002;  Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria aff003;  National Reference Laboratory, Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria aff004;  Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225379



Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a global health threat. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli infections are associated with high morbidity and expenditure when compared with infections caused by susceptible strains. In Nigeria, antimicrobial drugs are readily available over-the-counter with potential for indiscriminate use by poultry farmers and eventual development of drug resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence and risk factors for multi-drug resistant E. coli among poultry workers (PW) in Abuja, Nigeria.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 122 randomly selected apparently healthy poultry workers (poultry-farmers/ sellers) in Municipal and Kuje Area Councils from December 2018 to April 2019. Data was collected on socio-demographics and exposure factors using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. E. coli was isolated and identified from stool samples of poultry workers. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Data was analyzed by computing proportions, prevalence odds-ratios (POR) and logistic regression at 5% significance level.


Among PW, there were 121 males (99.2%). Mean age of the male workers was 30.6 ± 9.7years, 54.6% (n = 66) married, 57.9% (n = 70) had secondary education and 62.0% (n = 75) were farm-workers. Prevalence of E. coli was 39.7% (n = 48), highest among farm-workers (POR = 2.7, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.3–5.7; p = 0.01) compared to poultry-sellers. Of the 48 E. coli isolates, 16.7% (n = 8) were extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers and 79.2% (n = 38) were MDR. We detected resistance against Tetracycline: (83.3%, n = 40), Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim: (79.2%, n = 38), Ampicillin: (77.1%, n = 37), Streptomycin: (72.9%, n = 35), Nalidixic acid: (50%, n = 24), Gentamicin: (41.7%, n = 20), Chloramphenicol: (31.3%, n = 15), Cephalothin: (27.1%, n = 13), Nitrofurantoin: (10.4%, n = 5) and Imipenem: (6.3%, n = 3). Absence of lavatory (POR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1–6.7); existence of farm/market for >10years (POR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1–5.4) and PW’s history of diarrhea in last three months (POR = 2.8, CI = 1.2–6.3) were associated with MDR. Controlling for age, absence of lavatory (adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.6–11.9); PW’s history of diarrhea in last three months (aOR = 3.3,95%CI = 1.3–8.5) and work exposure >10years (aOR = 0.3, 95%CI = 0.1–0.9) remained independent risk factors for MDR.


Prevalence of resistant E. coli was highest among farm-workers and associated with older farms/markets, occupational exposure of over 10 years and poor hygienic measures. The management of Municipal and Kuje Area Councils were recommended to provide lavatories for public use in farm-settlements/markets. The importance of hand-hygiene and responsible use of antimicrobials in poultry production was emphasized.

Klíčová slova:

Antibiotic resistance – Antibiotics – Antimicrobial resistance – Antimicrobials – Livestock – Nigeria – Poultry – Social systems


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2019 Číslo 11