A Q fever outbreak associated to courier transport of pets


Autoři: Eva Alonso aff001;  Domingo Eizaguirre aff002;  Idoia Lopez-Etxaniz aff003;  José Ignacio Olaizola aff003;  Blanca Ocabo aff004;  Jesús Felix Barandika aff005;  Isabel Jado aff006;  Raquel Álvarez-Alonso aff005;  Ana Hurtado aff005;  Ana Luisa García-Pérez aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Epidemiology, Subdirección de Salud Pública de Bizkaia, Gobierno Vasco, Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain aff001;  Department of Epidemiology, Subdirección de Salud Pública de Bizkaia, Gobierno Vasco, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba, Spain aff002;  Department of Epidemiology, OSALAN-Instituto Vasco de Seguridad y Salud Laborales, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain aff003;  Department of Agriculture, Diputación Foral de Bizkaia, Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain aff004;  Animal Health Department, NEIKER- Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain aff005;  National Microbiology Center, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225605

Souhrn

On August 3rd, 2017, a Q fever outbreak alert was issued at a courier company that in addition to urgent freight transport offered pet delivery services. The epidemiological investigation set the exposition period between June 1 and August 8. In this period, 180 workers from two operational platforms for parcel distribution located in two provinces of the Basque Country (Bizkaia and Araba) were exposed; 64 filled a questionnaire and provided blood samples for serological testing, resulting in 10 confirmed cases (15.6%) and six (9.4%) probable cases. Nine workers (8 confirmed and 1 probable) showed Q fever symptoms, including pneumonia (five cases), and required medical care services, including one hospital admission. The attack rate was 25% (16/64), being higher among workers that visited the Bizkaia platform. This suggested that the origin of the outbreak was in the Bizkaia platform, where animals in transit waited at a pet holding site until being moved to their destination. Environmental samples consisting on 19 surface dust and two aerosol samples were collected at the Bizkaia platform to investigate the presence of C. burnetti DNA. All dust samples were positive by real time PCR, the lowest Ct values being found in dust collected at the pet holding facilities, and therefore suggesting that contamination originated at the pet holding site. The genotype identified in dust was SNP1/MST13, one of the most commonly identified genotypes in goats and sheep in the Basque Country. During the exposure period, two deliveries of miniature goats were made, of which only one could be investigated and tested negative. Although the contamination source could not be unequivocally identified, transport of ruminants was banned at the company, and Q fever was included among the occupational-associated health risks.

Klíčová slova:

Epidemiology – Goats – Public and occupational health – Ruminants – Serology – Veterinary epidemiology – Q fever – Coxiella burnetii


Zdroje

1. Eldin C, Melenotte C, Mediannikov O, Ghigo E, Million M, Edouard S et al. From Q fever to Coxiella burnetii infection: a paradigm change. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017; 30(1): 115–190. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00045-16 27856520

2. EFSA. Scientific Opinion on Q fever. EFSA J. 2010; 8(5): 1595.

3. Rodolakis A, Berri M, Hechard C, Caudron C, Souriau A, Bodier CC et al. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds. J Dairy Sci. 2007; 90(12): 5352–5360. doi: 10.3168/jds.2006-815 18024725

4. Gonzalez-Barrio D, Ruiz-Fons F. Coxiella burnetii in wild mammals: A systematic review. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019; 66(2): 662–671. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13085 30506629

5. Clark NJ, Soares Magalhaes RJ. Airborne geographical dispersal of Q fever from livestock holdings to human communities: a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence. BMC Infect Dis. 2018; 18(1): 218. doi: 10.1186/s12879-018-3135-4 29764368

6. Tissot-Dupont H, Torres S, Nezri M, Raoult D. Hyperendemic focus of Q fever related to sheep and wind. Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 150(1): 67–74. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009920 10400556

7. Tissot-Dupont H, Amadei MA, Nezri M, Raoult D. Wind in November, Q fever in December. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10(7): 1264–1269. doi: 10.3201/eid1007.030724 15324547

8. van den Brom R, van EE, Roest HI, van der Hoek W, Vellema P. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review. Vet Microbiol. 2015; 181(1–2): 119–129. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.07.011 26315774

9. Alonso E, Lopez-Etxaniz I, Hurtado A, Liendo P, Urbaneja F, Aspiritxaga I et al. Q Fever outbreak among workers at a waste-sorting plant. PLoS One. 2015; 10(9): e0138817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138817 26398249

10. Hurtado A, Alonso E, Aspiritxaga I, Lopez E, I, Ocabo B, Barandika JF et al. Environmental sampling coupled with real-time PCR and genotyping to investigate the source of a Q fever outbreak in a work setting. Epidemiol Infect. 2017; 145(9): 1834–1842. doi: 10.1017/S0950268817000796 28434420

11. Schets FM, de Heer L, de Roda Husman AM. Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013; 216(6): 698–702. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.12.010 23347968

12. Glazunova O, Roux V, Freylikman O, Sekeyova Z, Fournous G, Tyczka J et al. Coxiella burnetii genotyping. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005; 11(8): 1211–1217. doi: 10.3201/eid1108.041354 16102309

13. Huijsmans CJ, Schellekens JJ, Wever PC, Toman R, Savelkoul PH, Janse I et al. Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism genotyping of a Coxiella burnetii during a Q Fever outbreak in The Netherlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011; 77(6): 2051–2057. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02293-10 21257816

14. Alvarez-Alonso R, Basterretxea M, Barandika JF, Hurtado A, Idiazabal J, Jado I et al. A Q fever outbreak with a high rate of abortions at a dairy goat farm: Coxiella burnetii shedding, environmental contamination, and viability. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018; 84(20): e01650–18. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01650-18 30076194

15. Alende-Castro V, Macia-Rodriguez C, Novo-Veleiro I, Garcia-Fernandez X, Trevino-Castellano M, Rodriguez-Fernandez S et al. Q fever in Spain: Description of a new series, and systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018; 12(3): e0006338. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006338 29543806

16. Perez-Arellano JL, Carranza-Rodriguez C, Gutierrez C, Bolaños M. Epidemiología de la fiebre Q en España (2018). Rev Esp Quimioter. 2018; 31(5): 386–405. 30027720

17. Maurin M, Raoult D. Q fever. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999; 12(4): 518–553. 10515901

18. de Cremoux R, Rousset E, Touratier A, Audusseau G, Nicollet P, Ribaud D et al. Coxiella burnetii vaginal shedding and antibody responses in dairy goat herds in a context of clinical Q fever outbreaks. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012; 64(1): 120–122. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2011.00893.x 22066517

19. Alvarez-Alonso R, Barandika JF, Ruiz-Fons F, Ortega-Araiztegi I, Jado I, Hurtado A et al. Stable levels of Coxiella burnetii prevalence in dairy sheep flocks but changes in genotype distribution after a 10-year period in northern Spain. Acta Vet Scand. 2018; 60(1): 75. doi: 10.1186/s13028-018-0429-x 30454011

20. Angelakis E, Raoult D. Q fever. Vet Microbiol. 2010; 140(3–4): 297–309. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.07.016 19875249

21. Buhariwalla F, Cann B, Marrie TJ. A dog-related outbreak of Q fever. Clin Infect Dis. 1996; 23(4): 753–755. doi: 10.1093/clinids/23.4.753 8909839

22. Malo JA, Colbran C, Young M, Vasant B, Jarvinen K, Viney K et al. An outbreak of Q fever associated with parturient cat exposure at an animal refuge and veterinary clinic in southeast Queensland. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2018; 42(5): 451–455. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12784 29644762

23. Astobiza I, Barandika JF, Hurtado A, Juste RA, García-Pérez AL. Kinetics of Coxiella burnetii excretion in a commercial dairy sheep flock after treatment with oxytetracycline. Vet J. 2010; 184(2): 172–175. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.01.017 19269867

24. Georgiev M, Afonso A, Neubauer H, Needham H, Thiery R, Rodolakis A et al. Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to 2010. Euro Surveill. 2013; 18(8): pii = 20407. 23449232


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11