Exploring the influence of self-perceptions on the relationship between motor competence and identity in adolescents

Autoři: Amanda Timler aff001;  Fleur McIntyre aff002;  Elizabeth Rose aff001;  Beth Hands aff001
Působiště autorů: Institute for Health Research, University of Notre Dame Australia, Perth Western Australia, Australia aff001;  School of Health Sciences, University of Notre Dame Australia, Perth Western Australia, Australia aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224653


Background and aims

A relationship exists between an adolescent’s level of motor competence and the health of their identity. As those with low motor competence (LMC) form less healthy identities, the aim of this study was to investigate if self-perceptions mediated the negative impact of LMC on identity health.


Adolescents (N = 160) completed the Adolescent Motor Competence Questionnaire (AMCQ), Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence (AIDA) and the Self Perception Profile for Adolescence (SPPA). The mediating effect of their self-perceptions on the relationship between motor competence and identity health was examined in several ways: for the total sample, between male and females, and level of motor competence. Two motor competence groups were formed by dichotomizing their AMCQ scores (< 83 = LMC).


There was an indirect effect of self-perceptions of social competence, physical appearance, romantic appeal, behavioural conduct, close friendships and global self-worth on the relationship between motor competence and identity health for the total sample (N = 160, 64.4% males, Mage = 14.45 SD = .75, 12 to 16 years). No indirect effects were significant for females however close friendships and global self-worth were significant for the males. When the sample was grouped for motor competence, indirect effects of social competence, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioural conduct, and global self-worth were significant for the high motor competence (HMC) group. The only self-perception significant for the LMC group was close friendships.


Self-perceptions in several domains mediated the relationship between motor competence and identity health, and these differed for level of motor competence but not gender. Those with LMC who had a higher self-perception in the close friendships domain had a healthier identity. Designing physical activity programs that focus on skill development and forming close friendships are important for adolescents with LMC.

Klíčová slova:

Adolescents – Behavioral and social aspects of health – Global health – Health informatics – Physical activity – Questionnaires – Schools – Sports


1. Harter S. Construction of the Self: Developmental and Sociocultural Foundations (2nd Edition). New York; London: Guilford Press; 2012.

2. Schwartz SJ, Luyckx K, Vignoles VL. Handbook of Identity Theory and Research: Springer Science + Business Media; 2011.

3. Goth K, Foelsch P, Schlüter-Müller S, Birkhölzer M, Jung E, Pick O, et al. Assessment of identity development and identity diffusion in adolescence—Theoretical basis and psychometric properties of the self-report questionnaire AIDA. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 2012;6(1):27–. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-27 22812911

4. Perry DG, Pauletti RE. Gender and Adolescent Development. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 2011;21(1):61–74.

5. Erikson EH. Identity Youth and Crisis. New York London: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc; 1968.

6. Kelly M, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ, Boislard P M-A. Identity, intimacy, status and sex dating goals as correlates of goal-consistent behavior and satisfaction in Australian youth. Journal of Adolescence. 2012;35(6):1441–54. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.03.002 22482932

7. Kornienko O, Santos CE, Martin CL, Granger KL. Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence. Developmental Psychology. 2016;52(10):1578–92. doi: 10.1037/dev0000200 27584667

8. Timler A, McIntyre F, Hands B. The who.i.am study: identity formation and motor compentece during adolescents. The University of Notre Dame Australia: The University of Notre Dame Australia; 2018.

9. Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC. Understanding motor development: infants, children, adolescents, adults. 5th ed. Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

10. Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, Roberton MA, Rudisill ME, Garcia C, et al. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship. Quest. 2008;60(2):290–306.

11. Labbrozzi D, Robazza C, Bertollo M, Bucci I, Bortoli L. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls. Journal of Adolescence. 2013;36(4):759–65. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.06.002 23849670

12. Guan SSA, Fuligni AJ. Changes in Parent, Sibling, and Peer Support During the Transition to Young Adulthood. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 2016;26(2):286–99.

13. Association AP. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

14. Hill EL, Brown D, Sorgardt SK. A Preliminary Investigation of Quality of Life Satisfaction Reports in Emerging Adults With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder. Journal of Adult Development. 2011;18(3):130–4.

15. Cairney J, Hay JA, Faught BE, Wade TJ, Corna L, Flouris A. Developmental coordination disorder, generalized self-efficacy toward physical activity, and participation in organized and free play activities. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2005;147(4):515–20. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.05.013 16227039

16. Payne S, Ward G, Turner A, Taylor MC, Bark C. The social impact of living with Developmental Coordination Disorder as a 13-year-old. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2013;76(8):362–9.

17. Skinner RA, Piek JP. Psychosocial implications of poor motor coordination in children and adolescents. Human Movement Science. 2001;20(1–2):73–94. 11471399

18. Wilson A, Piek JP, Kane R. The Mediating Role of Social Skills in the Relationship between Motor Ability and Internalizing Symptoms in Pre-primary Children. Infant and Child Development. 2013;22(2):151–64.

19. Sollberger D. On identity: From a philosophical point of view. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 2013;29(7):1–10.

20. Timler A, McIntyre F, Bulsara C, Rose E, Hands B. The Influence of Motor Competence on Adolescent Identity Health: A Mixed Method Study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.

21. Lingam RP, Novak C, Emond A, Coad JE. The importance of identity and empowerment to teenagers with developmental co-ordination disorder. Child Care Health Development. 2013;40(3):1–10.

22. Rose E, Larkin D, Parker H, Hands B. Does Motor Competence Affect Self-Perceptions Differently for Adolescent Males and Females? SAGE Open 2015;5(4):1–9.

23. Harter S. Self-Perception Profile for Adolescnets: Manual and questionniares. 2012.

24. Rose E, Hands B, Larkin D. Reliability and validity of the self-perception profile for adolescents: An Australian sample. Australian Journal of Psychology. 2011;64(2):92–9.

25. Timler A, McIntyre F, Cantell M, Crawford S, Hands B. Development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Motor Competence Questionnaire (AMCQ) for Adolescents. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2016;59:127–37. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2016.08.005 27525559

26. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

27. McCarron L. McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development 3rd ed. Dallas, TX: McCarron-Dial Systems Inc; 1997

28. Goth K, Foelsch P, Schluter-Muller S, Schmeck K. AIDA: A self report questionnaire for measuring identity in adolescence—Short manual. 2012.

29. Field AP. Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics: And Sex Drugs and Rock 'n' Roll In: Sage, editor. 4th ed. Los Angeles2013.

30. Baron RM, Kenny DA. The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1986;51(6):1173–82. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.51.6.1173 3806354

31. Gonzalez O, MacKinnon DP. A Bifactor Approach to Model Multifaceted Constructs in Statistical Mediation Analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2016.

32. Hayes AF. Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical Mediation Analysis in the New Millennium. Communication Monographs. 2009;76(4):408–20.

33. Sobel ME. Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for Indirect Effects in Structural Equation Models. Sociological Methodology. 1982;13:290–312.

34. Vedul-Kjelsås V, Sigmundsson H, Stensdotter AK, Haga M. The relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self-perception in children. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2012;38(3):394–402.

35. Harter S. Emerging Self-Processes during Childhood and Adolescence. In: Leary MR, Tangney JP, editors. Handbook of self and Identity. New York London: The Guilford Press; 2012. p. 680–716.

36. Kerpelman JL, Pittman JF, Saint-Eloi Cadely H, Tuggle FJ, Harrell-Levy MK, Adler-Baeder FM. Identity and intimacy during adolescence: Connections among identity styles, romantic attachment and identity commitment. Journal of Adolescence. 2012;35(6):1427–39. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.03.008 22503899

37. Ullrich-French S, Smith AL. Social and motivational predictors of continued youth sport participation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2009;10(1):87–95.

38. Ryska TA. Sport involvement and perceived scholastic competence in student-athletes: A multivariate analysis. International Sports Journal. 2003;7(1):155–71.

39. Raburu PA. The self who am I? Children's identity development through early childhood education. Journal of Edudcational and Social Research. 2015;5(1):95–102.

40. Cairney J, Kwan MYW, Hay JA, Faught BE. Developmental coordination disorder, gender, and body weight: Examining the impact of participation in active play. Reserach in Developmental Disabilities. 2013;22:1566–73.

41. McLean KC, Jennings LE. Teens telling tales: How maternal and peer audiences support narrative identity development. Journal of Adolescence. 2012;35(6):1455–69. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.12.005 22209556

42. Cheng H, Furnham A. Personality, peer relations, and self-confidence as predictors of happiness and loneliness. JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE. 2002;25(3):327–39. 12128043

43. Doumen S, Smits I, Luyckx K, Duriez B, Vanhalst J, Verschueren K, et al. Identity and perceived peer relationship quality in emerging adulthood: The mediating role of attachment-related emotions. Journal of Adolescence. 2012;35(6):1417–25. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.01.003 22325118

44. Cairney J, Rigoli D, Piek J. Developmental coordination disorder and internalizing problems in children: The environmental stress hypothesis elaborated. Developmental Review. 2013;33:224–38.

45. Brewer M, Gardner W. Who is this "we"?: Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1996;71(1):83–93.

46. Barnett AL, Dawes H, Wilmut K. Constraints and facilitators to participation in physical activity in teenagers with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder: An exploratory interview study. Child Care Health Development. 2013;39(3):393–403.

47. Lingam R, Jongmans MJ, Ellis M, Hunt LP, Golding J, Emond A. Mental health difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics. 2012;129(4):e882–91. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-1556 22451706

48. Fitzpatrick DA, Watkinson EJ. The lived experience of physical awkwardness: Adults' retrospective views. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 2003;20(3):279–97.

49. Zimmerman MA, Stoddard SA, Eisman AB, Caldwell CH, Aiyer SM, Miller A. Adolescent Resilience: Promotive Factors That Inform Prevention. Child Development Perspectives. 2013;7(4):215–20.

50. Bardid F, De Meester A, Tallir I, Cardon G, Lenoir M, Haerens L. Configurations of actual and perceived motor competence among children: Associations with motivation for sports and global self-worth. Human Movement Science. 2016;50:1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2016.09.001 27620643

51. Tatlow-Golden M, Guerin S. Who I Am: The Meaning of Early Adolescents’ Most Valued Activities and Relationships, and Implications for Self-Concept Research. The Journal of Early Adolescence. 2017;37(2):236–66.

52. Bédard K, Bouffard T, Pansu P. The risks for adolescents of negatively biased self-evaluations of social competence: The mediating role of social support. Journal of Adolescence. 2014;37(6):787–98. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.05.004 25086456

53. de Vries DA, Peter J, de Graaf H, Nikken P. Adolescents’ Social Network Site Use, Peer Appearance-Related Feedback, and Body Dissatisfaction: Testing a Mediation Model. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2016;45(1):211–24. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0266-4 25788122

54. Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2008;40(12):2137–44. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818160d3 18981934

55. Haugen T, Ommundsen Y, Seiler S. The relationship between physical activity and physical self-esteem in adolescents: The role of physical fitness indices. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2013;25(1):138–53. 23406702

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 11