Evaluation of forearm vascular resistance during orthostatic stress: Velocity is proportional to flow and size doesn’t matter

Autoři: V. E. Claydon aff001;  J. P. Moore aff002;  E. R. Greene aff003;  O. Appenzeller aff004;  R. Hainsworth aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada aff001;  School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom aff002;  Department of Biology and Chemistry, New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, New Mexico, United States of America aff003;  Department of Neurology, New Mexico Health Enhancement and Marathon Clinics Research Foundation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America aff004;  Division of Cardiovascular and Neuronal Remodeling, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224872



The upright posture imposes a significant challenge to blood pressure regulation that is compensated through baroreflex-mediated increases in heart rate and vascular resistance. Orthostatic cardiac responses are easily inferred from heart rate, but vascular resistance responses are harder to elucidate. One approach is to determine vascular resistance as arterial pressure/blood flow, where blood flow is inferred from ultrasound-based measurements of brachial blood velocity. This relies on the as yet unvalidated assumption that brachial artery diameter does not change during orthostatic stress, and so velocity is proportional to flow. It is also unknown whether the orthostatic vascular resistance response is related to initial blood vessel diameter.


We determined beat-to-beat heart rate (ECG), blood pressure (Portapres) and vascular resistance (Doppler ultrasound) during a combined orthostatic stress test (head-upright tilting and lower body negative pressure) continued until presyncope. Participants were 16 men (aged 38.4±2.3 years) who lived permanently at high altitude (4450m).


The supine brachial diameter ranged from 2.9–5.6mm. Brachial diameter did not change during orthostatic stress (supine: 4.19±0.2mm; tilt: 4.20±0.2mm; -20mmHg lower body negative pressure: 4.19±0.2mm, p = 0.811). There was no significant correlation between supine brachial artery diameter and the maximum vascular resistance response (r = 0.323; p = 0.29). Forearm vascular resistance responses evaluated using brachial arterial flow and velocity were strongly correlated (r = 0.989, p<0.00001) and demonstrated high equivalency with minimal bias (-6.34±24.4%).


During severe orthostatic stress the diameter of the brachial artery remains constant, supporting use of brachial velocity for accurate continuous non-invasive orthostatic vascular resistance responses. The magnitude of the orthostatic forearm vascular resistance response was unrelated to the baseline brachial arterial diameter, suggesting that upstream vessel size does not matter in the ability to mount a vasoconstrictor response to orthostasis.

Klíčová slova:

Arteries – Blood – Blood flow – Blood pressure – Blood vessels – Heart rate – Hypotension


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