Predictors of never having a mammogram among Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean immigrant women in the U.S.

Autoři: En-Jung Shon aff001;  Aloen Louise Townsend aff002
Působiště autorů: Department of Family Science and Social Work, Miami University, Oxford, OH, United States of America aff001;  Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States of America aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224505



Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Asian women in the U.S. The first objective was to investigate predictors (including ethnicity) of never having a mammogram in middle-aged and older Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean immigrant women (main effects). The second objective was to explore whether relationships between predictors and never having a mammogram varied across the three groups (moderation effects of ethnicity).


Merged (2005-2007-2009-2011) California Health Interview Survey data were utilized. Unweighted sample was 3,710 Asian women ages 40 years and older (Chinese = 1,389; Vietnamese = 1,094; Korean = 1,227). Replicate weighted total sample size was 1,710,233 (Chinese = 940,000; Vietnamese = 410,000; Korean = 360,000). Replicate-weighted multivariate logistic regression was applied. Interaction effects (moderator role of ethnicity) were also examined, using multivariate logistic regression, for the second objective.


For the first objective, odds of never having a mammogram were higher for women who were Korean (Ref = Vietnamese), unmarried, or a non-U.S. citizen. Odds were lower in women ages 50–59 or 60–69 (Ref = 70–85). Regarding the second objective, only for Chinese women, odds of never having a mammogram were lower as the number of physician visits got higher.


Culturally-sensitive outreach and services should be developed to target higher-risk groups. Patient-centered healthcare strategies tailored for the three groups could be effective. For Chinese women, in particular, regular information sessions or education programs could be provided for enhancing their physician visits.

Klíčová slova:

Breast cancer – Ethnic epidemiology – Ethnicities – Chinese people – Korean people – Mammography – Physicians – Vietnamese people


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