The Polish version of the Cultural Intelligence Scale: Assessment of its reliability and validity among healthcare professionals and medical faculty students

Autoři: Krystian Barzykowski aff001;  Anna Majda aff002;  Małgorzata Szkup aff003;  Paweł Przyłęcki aff004
Působiště autorů: Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland aff001;  Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland aff002;  Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland aff003;  Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Sociology, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225240



Healthcare professionals and students of medical faculties in Poland increasingly encounter culturally diverse patients. It is necessary to support the development of cultural intelligence in order to improve the medical care provided to patients from different cultural backgrounds. At present there are no standardized tools in Poland that can accurately and reliably assess cultural intelligence, which is defined by Ang et al. as “an individual’s capability to function and manage effectively in culturally diverse settings”. As argued in the present paper, this (cap)ability may be important for providing patient-centred care that is culturally adequate and competent.


The aim of the research was to show the multistage process of validation of the Polish version of The Cultural Intelligence Scale by Ang et al. and Van Dyne et. al.


Across two studies we examined the psychometric properties of the Cultural Intelligence Scale, including reliability (i.e. internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure) and validity (i.e. theoretical, criteria, convergent). In the first two-session study, 349 participants (98% were healthcare professionals, e.g. nurse, student nurse, medical student; mainly women, 89%) completed the Polish version of the Cultural Intelligence Scale twice with an interval of at least 22 days. In addition, across two study sessions participants completed questionnaires constructed to measure (a) cultural competence, (b) need for cognitive closure, (c) emphatic sensitiveness, (d) emotional intelligence, (e) self-esteem, (f) social desirability, (g) personality, and (h) positive/negative attitudes towards culturally divergent people. Finally, to additionally examine the theoretical validity, 36 professional cross-cultural competence trainers completed the Cultural Intelligence Scale during a one-session study.


The Cultural Intelligence Scale has been shown to have satisfactory psychometric properties. It has high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha, respectively .94 and .95 in the first and second sessions) and the factor structure seems to approach the postulated one. Theoretical and criterion accuracy are well proven; convergence is less straightforward, but it correlates well with tools that examine variables such as cultural competence, cognitive closure, empathy/emphatic sensitiveness, emotional intelligence, self-esteem, personality, and social desirability. The results suggest that these factors contribute to the development of the cultural intelligence.


The Cultural Intelligence Scale can be successfully used in empirical research of cultural intelligence of medical professionals and students of medical majors and their education in Polish conditions.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Cross-cultural studies – Culture – Emotions – Human intelligence – Intelligence – Intelligence tests – Polish people


1. Ang S, Van Dyne L, Koh C. Personality correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. Group Organ Manag. 2006;31(1): 100–123.

2. Ang S, Van Dyne L, Koh C, Ng KY, Templer KJ, Tay C, et al. Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment an decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Manag Organiz Rev. 2007;3: 335–371.

3. Bűcker J, Furrer O, Lin Y. Measuring cultural intelligence (CQ): a new test of the CQ scale. Int J Cross Cult Manag. 2015;15(3): 259–284.

4. Earley PC. Redefining Interactions Across Cultures and Organizations. Moving Forward with Cultural Intelligence. Res Organ Behav. 2002;24: 271–299.

5. Earley PC, Ang S. Cultural Intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 2003.

6. Earley PC, Mosakowski EI. Cultural Intelligence. Harv Bus Rev. 2004;82(10): 139–146. 15559582

7. Matsumoto D, Hwang HC. Assessing cross-cultural competence: a review of available tests. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2013;44(6): 849–873.

8. Van Dyne L, Ang S, Koh C. Cultural intelligence. Measurement and scale development. In: Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence. Exploring the cross-cultural dynamics within organizations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2009.

9. Van Dyne L, Ang S, Ng KY, Rockstuhl T, Tan ML, Koh C. Sub-Dimensions of the Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence: Expanding the Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Intelligence. Soc Personal Psychol Compass. 2012; 6(4): 295–313.

10. Keyvanara M, Yarmohammadian MH, Soltani B. The relationship between cultural intelligence and social compatibility in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories resident students. J Educ Health Promot. 2014;3: 100. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.139682 25250366

11. Rahimaghaee F, Mozdbar R. Cultural intelligence and its relation with professional competency in nurses. Nurs Pract Today. 2017;4(3): 115–124.

12. Piwowarczyk AJ. Istota i znaczenie inteligencji kulturowej w kontekście kształcenia uniwersyteckiego. E-mentor 2016;1(63): 4–13.

13. Ronowicz Z. Inteligencja kulturowa, czyli co powinien umieć menadżer XXI wieku. Personel i Zarządzanie 2005;7: 97–98.

14. Simpson D. Znaczenie inteligencji kulturowej w kierowaniu zespołami międzynarodowymi. Int Bus Glob Econ. 2015;34: 136–151.

15. Simpson D. Znaczenie inteligencji kulturowej w zarządzaniu międzynarodowymi zespołami projektowymi. Horyzonty Polityki 2017;8(23): 163–182.

16. Starosta A. Inteligencja kulturowa jako niezbędny element zarządzania różnorodnością. Manag 2012;16(1): 402–412.

17. Majda A, Zalewska-Puchała J. Kompetencje kulturowe i inteligencja kulturowa w pielęgniarstwie. Piel Pol. 2018;2(68): 196–303.

18. Przyłęcki P. International students at the Medical University of Łódź: Adaptation Challenges and Culture Shock Experienced in a Foreign Country. CEEMR 2018;7(2): 209–232.

19. Treder M. Cudzoziemcy w Polsce na tle kryzysu migracyjnego w Europie. Rocznik Bezpieczeństwa Międzynarodowego 2017;11(1): 205–219.

20. Eurostat. Foreign born population by country of birth. 2018. Available from:,_1_January_2017_.png

21. Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych. Rozporządzenie Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego z dnia 9 maja 2012 w sprawie standardów kształcenia dla kierunków studiów: lekarskiego, lekarsko-dentystycznego, farmacji, pielęgniarstwa i położnictwa, Dz. U. 2018, poz. 345. Available from:

22. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care. Final Report. 2001. Avalable from:

23. Bein T. Understanding intercultural competence in intensive care medicine. Intensive Care Med 2017;43: 229–231. doi: 10.1007/s00134-016-4432-2 27379795

24. Ulrey KL, Amason P. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: An exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety. Health Commun. 2001;13(4): 449–463. doi: 10.1207/s15327027hc1304_06 11771806

25. Tseng W-S, Streltzer J. Cultural Competence in Health Care. A Guide for Professionals. New-York: Springer; 2008.

26. Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st century. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001.

27. Castillo RJ, Guo KL. A Framework for Cultural Competence in Health Care Organizations. Health Care Manag 2011; 30(3): 205–214.

28. Białk-Wolf A, Arent M. Turyści medyczni w Polsce w kontekście międzynarodowym. Zeszyty Naukowe Turystyka i Rekreacja 2018; 21(1): 99–111.

29. Thornson CA. Development and validation of the Cross-cultural Competence Inventory. Electronic Theses and Dissertations Paper 1685, University of Central Florida Libraries. 2010. Available from:

30. Thornson CA, Ross KG. The Construct & Criterion Validation of the Cross-Cultural Competence Inventory. Final Report. Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI); 2010.

31. Fisher R. Cross-cultural training effects on cultural essentialism beliefs and cultural intelligence. Int J Intercult Relat. 2011;35: 767–775.

32. Groves KS, Feyerherm AE. Leader cultural intelligence in context: Testing the moderating effects of team cultural diversity on leaders and team performance. Group Organ Manag. 2011;36: 535–566.

33. Moon T. Emotional intelligence correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. JMP. 2010;25: 876–898.

34. Rockstuhl T, Seiler S, Ang S, Van Dyne L, Annen H. Beyond general intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross-border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. J Soc Issues. 2011;67: 825–840.

35. Imai L, Gelfand MJ. The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. 2010;112: 83–89.

36. Kossowska M, Hanusz K, Trejtowicz M. Skrócona wersja Skali Potrzeby Poznawczego Domknięcia. Dobór pozycji i walidacja skali. Psych Społ. 2012;1(20): 89–99.

37. Mayer JP, Salovey P. What is emotional intelligence? In: Mayer JD, Salovey P, Sluyter DJ, editors. Emotional development and emotional intelligence. New York: Basic Books; 1997. pp. 3–34.

38. Szopski M. Komunikowanie międzykulturowe. Warszawa: WSiP; 2005.

39. Davis MH. A Multidimensional Approach to Individual Differences in Empathy. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1980;10: 85.

40. Deardorff DK. The identification and assessment of intercultural competence. J Stud Int Educ. 2006;10(3): 241–266.

41. Guntersdorfer I, Golubeva I. Emotional Intelligence and Intercultural Competence: Theoretical Questions and Pedagogical Possibilities. Intercult Commun Educ. 2018;1(2): 54–63.

42. Łaguna M, Lachowicz-Tabaczek K, Dzwonkowska I. Skala samooceny SES Morrisa Rosenberga–polska adaptacja metody. Psych Społ. 2007;02(04): 164–176.

43. Matsumoto D, Juang L. Psychologia międzykulturowa. Gdańsk: GWP; 2007.

44. Strus W, Cieciuch J, Rowiński T. Polska adaptacja kwestionariusza IPIP-BFM-50 do pomiaru pięciu cech osobowości w ujęciu leksykalnym. Rocz Psych. 2014; XVII(2): 327–346.

45. Topolewska E, Skimina E, Strus W, Cieciuch J, Rowiński T. Krótki Kwestionariusz do Pomiaru Wielkiej Piątki IPIP-BFM-20. Rocz Psych. 2014; XVII(2): 367–384.

46. Barzykowski K, Majda A, Przyłęcki P, Szkup M. The Cross-Cultural Competence Inventory: Validity and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation. PLoS ONE 2019;14(3): e0212730. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212730 30845146

47. Kaźmierczak M, Plopa M, Retowski S. Skala Wrażliwości Empatycznej. Prz Psych. 2007;50(1): 9–24.

48. Davis MH. Empatia. O umiejętności współodczuwania. Gdańsk: GWP; 1999.

49. Davis MH. Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1983;44(1): 113–126.

50. Webster D, Kruglanski AW. Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994;67: 1049–1062. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.67.6.1049 7815301

51. Kossowska M. Różnice indywidualne w potrzebie poznawczego domknięcia. Prz Psych. 2003;46: 355–375.

52. Topolewska E, Skimina E, Struś W, Cieciuch J, Rowiński T. Krótki Kwestionariusz do Pomiaru Wielkiej Piątki IPIP-BFM-20. Rocz Psych. 2014; XVII(2): 367–384.

53. Drwal RŁ, Wilczyńska IT. Opracowanie Kwestionariusza Aprobaty Społecznej. Prz Psych. 1980;23: 569–583.

54. Crowne DP, Marlowe D. A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. J Consult Psychol. 1960;24(4): 349–354.

55. Borkowska A, Gąsiorowska A, Nosal CS. Kwestionariusz do diagnozy poziomu inteligencji emocjonalnej. Prz Psych. 2006;49(1): 9–20.

56. Salovey P, Mayer JD, Goldman SL, Turvey C, Palfai TP. Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In: Pennebaker JW, editor. Emotion, disclosure, & health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1995. pp. 125–154. doi: 10.1179/2295333714Y.0000000013

57. Goldberg LR. The development of markers of Big Five factor structure. Psychol Assess. 1992;4(1): 26–42.

58. Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 1951;16:297–334.

59. Coolican H. Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology. London/New York: Psychology Press; 2014.

60. Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford; 2015.

61. Johnson RB. Examining the validity structure of qualitative research. Education 1997;118(2):282.

62. Wilson C. Credible Checklists and Quality Questionnaires. A User-Centered Design Method. Waltham, MA: Morgan Kaufmann; 2013.

63. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. New York: Erlbaum; 1988.

64. Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2001.

65. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling. 1999;6: 1–55.

66. Bollen KA. Structural Equations With Latent Variables. New York: Wiley; 1989.

67. Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: Bollen KA, Long JS, editors. Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1993. pp. 136–162.

68. MacCallum RC, Roznowski M, Necowitz LV. Model modifications in covariance structure analysis: the problem of capitalization on chance. Psychol Bull. 1996;111: 490–504.

69. Marsh HW, Balla JR, McDonald RP. Goodness of fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size. Psychol Bull. 1988;103: 391–410.

70. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y.Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Appl Stat. 1995;57: 289–300.

71. Bücker J, Furrer O, Peeters Weem T. Robustness and cross-cultural equivalence of the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS). JGM. 2016;4(3): 300–325.

72. Ward C, Fischer R, Zaid Lam FS, Hall L. The convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of scores on a self-report measure of cultural intelligence. Educ Psychol Meas. 2009;69(1): 85–105.

73. Barna LM. Stumbling blocks in intercultural communication. In: Samovar LA, Porter RE, editors. Intercultural communication: A reader. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 1996. pp. 370–379.

74. Ting-Toomey S. Communicating Across Cultures. New York: Guilford Press; 1999.

75. Chen AS, Lin Y, Sawangpattanakul A. The relationship between cultural intelligence and performance with the mediating effect of culture shock: A case from Philippine laborers in Taiwan. Int J Intercult Relat. 2011;35: 246–258.

76. Lee LY, Sukoco BM. The effects of cultural intelligence on expatriate performance: The moderating effects of international experience. Int J Hum Resour Man. 2010;21: 963–981.

77. Templer KJ, Tay C, Chandrasekar NA. Motivational cultural intelligence, realistic job preview, realistic living conditions preview, and cross-cultural adjustment. Group Organ Manag 2006;31: 154–173.

78. Ramsey JR, Leonel JN, Gomes GZ, Monteiro PRR. Cultural intelligence’s influence on international business traveler’s stress. Cross Cult Manag. 2011;18: 21–37.

79. Ward C, Wilson J, Fisher R. Assessing the predictive validity of cultural intelligence over time. Pers Individ Dif. 2011;51: 138–142.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 11