Behavioral observation of prosocial behavior and social initiative is related to preschoolers’ psychopathological symptoms


Autoři: Laura Huber aff001;  Maria Plötner aff001;  Julian Schmitz aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany aff001;  Leipzig Research Centre for Early Childhood Development, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225274

Souhrn

Current research on preschool-age psychopathology suggests specific impairments in the two domains of social competence–prosocial behavior and social initiative–in children with externalizing and internalizing symptoms. While behavioral observation methods have been largely neglected in the past, they may extend the predominating questionnaire-based assessment as they allow for a precise and objective assessment of children’s social behavior. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether prosocial behavior and social initiative measured in a limited resource task are related to externalizing and internalizing symptoms in a preschool-age community sample (N = 117, M = 4.67 years, SD = 2.75 months, females = 57). Externalizing and internalizing symptoms were rated by teachers (n = 109) and parents (n = 77) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children using the Berkeley Puppet Interview (n = 97). Reduced prosocial actions were related to children’s higher ratings of externalizing symptoms, while reduced social initiative actions were related to parents’ higher ratings of internalizing symptoms. Prosocial behavior in the behavioral task was a marginally significant positive predictor of internalizing symptoms from children’s perspective. These results highlight the value of behavioral observation measures and contribute to our understanding of interpersonal deficits already related to psychopathology at preschool age.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Children – Mental health and psychiatry – Parenting behavior – Prosocial behavior – Regression analysis – Social research – Teachers


Zdroje

1. Havighurst RJ. Developmental tasks and education: University of Chicago Press; 1948.

2. Burt KB, Obradović J, Long JD, Masten AS. The interplay of social competence and psy-chopathology over 20 years: testing transactional and cascade models. Child Dev. 2008; 79(2):359–74. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01130.x 18366428

3. Rubin KH, Rose-Krasnor L. Interpersonal Problem-Solving and Social Competence in Children. In: van Hasselt VB, Hersen M, editors. Handbook of Social Development: A Lifespan Perspective. New York: Plenum; 1992. p. 283–323.

4. Perren S, Forrester-Knauss C, Alsaker FD. Self- and other-oriented social skills: Differential associations with children’s mental health and bullying roles. J for Educational Research Online. 2012; 4(1):99–123.

5. Caprara GV, Barbaranelli C, Pastorelli C, Bandura A, Zimbardo PG. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement. Psychol Sci. 2000; 11(4):302–6. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00260 11273389

6. Green VA, Rechis R. Children's cooperative and competitive interactions in limited re-source situations: A literature review. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2006; 27(1):42–59.

7. Campbell C, Hansen DJ, Nangle DW. Social skills and psychological adjustment. In: Nangle Doug-las W., Hansen David J., Erdley Cynthia A., Norton Peter J., editors. Practitioner's guide to empirically based measures of social skills: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2010.

8. Bornstein MH, Hahn C-S, Haynes OM. Social competence, externalizing, and internalizing behavioral adjustment from early childhood through early adolescence: developmental cas-cades. Dev Psychopathol. 2010; 22(4):717–35. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000416 20883577

9. Rydell A-M, Hagekull B, Bohlin G. Measurement of two social competence aspects in middle childhood. Dev Psychol. 1997; 33(5):824. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.33.5.824 9300215

10. Warneken F, Tomasello M. The roots of human altruism. Br J Psychol. 2009; 100(3):455–71.

11. Liszkowski U, Carpenter M, Striano T, Tomasello M. 12- and 18-Month-Olds Point to Provide Information for Others. J Cogn Dev. 2006; 7(2):173–87.

12. Svetlova M, Nichols SR, Brownell CA. Toddlers’ Prosocial Behavior: From Instrumental to Empathic to Altruistic Helping. Child Dev. 2010; 81(6):1814–27.

13. Henricsson L, Rydell A-M. Children with behaviour problems: The influence of social competence and social relations on problem stability, school achievement and peer acceptance across the first six years of school. Inf Child Develop. 2006; 15(4):347–66.

14. Chen X, Li D, Li Z-Y, Li B-S, Liu M. Sociable and prosocial dimensions of social compe-tence in Chinese children: Common and unique contributions to social, academic, and psycho-logical adjustment. Dev Psychol. 2000; 36(3):302. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.36.3.302 10830975

15. Engelmann JM, Herrmann E, Tomasello M. Five-Year Olds, but Not Chimpanzees, At-tempt to Manage Their Reputations. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e48433. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048433 23119015

16. Melis AP, Grocke P, Kalbitz J, Tomasello M. One for You, One for Me: Humans' Unique Turn-Taking Skills. Psychol Sci. 2016; 27(7):987–96. doi: 10.1177/0956797616644070 27225221

17. Perren S, Alsaker FD. Depressive symptoms from kindergarten to early school age: longi-tudinal associations with social skills deficits and peer victimization. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2009; 3(1):28. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-3-28 19772574

18. Masten AS, Obradović J. Competence and Resilience in Development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1094(1):13–27.

19. Luthar SS, Cicchetti D, Becker B. The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Dev. 2000; 71(3):543–62. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00164 10953923

20. Greenberg MT, Domitrovich C, Bumbarger B. The prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: Current state of the field. Prevention & Treatment. 2001; 4(1):1a.

21. Perren S, Malti T. Soziale Kompetenz entwickeln: Synthese und Ausblick. In: Malti T, Perren S, editors. Soziale Kompetenz bei Kindern und Jugendlichen: Entwicklungsprozesse und Fördermöglichkeiten. 1st ed. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer; 2008. p. 265–78.

22. Clark DM, Wells A. A cognitive model of social phobia. Social phobia: Diagnosis, assess-ment, and treatment. 1995; 41(68):22–3.

23. Segrin C. Social skills deficits associated with depression. Clin Psychol Rev. 2000; 20(3):379–403. doi: 10.1016/s0272-7358(98)00104-4 10779900

24. Kofler MJ, Larsen R, Sarver DE, Tolan PH. Developmental trajectories of aggression, pro-social behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. J Abnorm Psychol. 2015; 124(4):1027–42. doi: 10.1037/abn0000103 26595479

25. Paap MCS, Haraldsen IR, Breivik K, Butcher PR, Hellem FM, Stormark KM. The link between peer relations, prosocial behavior, and ODD/ADHD symptoms in 7-9-Year-old chil-dren. Psychiatry J. 2013: 319874. doi: 10.1155/2013/319874 24286065

26. Deschamps PKH, Schutter D. J. L. G., Kenemans JL, Matthys W. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015:105–13. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0535-x 24643447

27. Hoza B. Peer Functioning in Children With ADHD. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007; 32(6):655–63. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsm024 17556400

28. Achenbach T, Rescorla LA. Manual for ASEBA preschool forms & files: Burlington: Uni-versity of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families; 2000.

29. Hannigan LJ, Walaker N, Waszczuk MA, McAdams TA, Eley TC. Aetiological influences on stability and change in emotional and behavioural problems across development: A system-atic review. Psychopathol Rev. 2017; 4(1):52–108. doi: 10.5127/pr.038315 28337341

30. Hay DF, Hudson K, Liang W. Links between preschool children's prosocial skills and ag-gressive conduct problems: The contribution of ADHD symptoms. Early Child Res Q. 2010; 25(4):493–501.

31. Hughes C, White A, Sharpen J, Dunn J. Antisocial, angry, and unsympathetic: "Hard-to-manage" Preschoolers' Peer Problems and Possible Cognitive Influences. J Child Psychol & Psychiat. 2000; 41(2):169–79.

32. Nantel‐Vivier A, Pihl RO, Côté S, Tremblay RE. Developmental association of prosocial behaviour with aggression, anxiety and depression from infancy to preadolescence. J Child Psychol & Psychiat. 2014; 55(10):1135–44.

33. Rudolph KD, Heller TL. Interpersonal problem solving, externalizing behavior, and social competence in preschoolers: A knowledge-performance discrepancy? J Appl Dev Psychol. 1997; 18(1):107–17.

34. Flouri E, Sarmadi Z. Prosocial behavior and childhood trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems: The role of neighborhood and school contexts. Dev Psychol. 2016; 52(2):253–8. doi: 10.1037/dev0000076 26619321

35. Groeben M, Perren S, Stadelmann S, Klitzing KV. Emotional symptoms from kindergar-ten to middle childhood: associations with self- and other-oriented social skills. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011; 20(1):3–15. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0139-z 20931253

36. Perren S, Stadelmann S, Wyl AV, Klitzing KV. Pathways of behavioural and emotional symptoms in kindergarten children: What is the role of pro-social behaviour? Eur Child Ado-lesc Psychiatry. 2007; 16(4):209–14.

37. von Klitzing K, Dohnert M, Kroll M, Grube M. Mental disorders in early childhood. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2015; 112(21–22):375–86. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2015.0375 26149380

38. Denham SA, Blair KA, Demulder E, Levitas J, Sawyer K, Auerbach–Major S et al. Pre-school emotional competence: pathway to social competence? Child Dev. 2003; 74(1):238–56. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00533 12625448

39. Angold A, Egger HL. Preschool psychopathology: lessons for the lifespan. J Child Psy-chol & Psychiat. 2007; 48(10):961–6.

40. Reef J, Diamantopoulou S, Meurs I, Verhulst FC, Ende J. Developmental trajectories of child to adolescent externalizing behavior and adult DSM-IV disorder: results of a 24-year longitudinal study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011; 46(12):1233–41. doi: 10.1007/s00127-010-0297-9 20936464

41. Huber L, Plötner M, Schmitz J. Social competence and psychopathology in early child-hood: A systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018.

42. Thorell LB, Rydell A‐M. Behaviour problems and social competence deficits associated with symptoms of attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder: effects of age and gender. Child Care Health Dev. 2008; 34(5):584–95. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00869.x 18796051

43. Kraemer HC, Measelle JR, Ablow JC, Essex MJ, Boyce WT, Kupfer DJ. A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: mixing and matching contexts and perspectives. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160(9):1566–77. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.1566 12944328

44. Los Reyes A de, Kazdin AE. Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psy-chopathology: a critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study. Psychol Bull. 2005; 131(4):483–509. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.4.483 16060799

45. Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB, Lee J-Y, Podsakoff NP. Common method biases in be-havioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J Appl Psychol. 2003; 88(5):879–903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879 14516251

46. Compas BE, Jaser SS, Bettis AH, Watson KH, Gruhn MA, Dunbar JPet al. Coping, emo-tion regulation, and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis and nar-rative review. Psychol Bull. 2017; 143(9):939–91. doi: 10.1037/bul0000110 28616996

47. Warneken F, Tomasello M. Helping and Cooperation at 14 Months of Age. Infancy. 2007; 11(3):271–94.

48. Fehr E, Bernhard H, Rockenbach B. Egalitarianism in young children. Nature. 2008; 454(7208):1079. doi: 10.1038/nature07155 18756249

49. Platzman KA, Stoy MR, Brown RT, Coles CD, Smith IE, Falek A. Review of observa-tional methods in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Implications for diagnosis. Sch Psychol Q. 1992; 7(3):155–77.

50. McConaughy SH, Harder VS, Antshel KM, Gordon M, Eiraldi R, Dumenci L. Incremen-tal validity of test session and classroom observations in a multimethod assessment of atten-tion deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2010; 39(5):650–66. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2010.501287 20706918

51. Wood JJ. Parental Intrusiveness and Children’s Separation Anxiety in a Clinical Sample. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2006; 37(1):73–87. doi: 10.1007/s10578-006-0021-x 16932853

52. Stone LL, van Daal C, van der Maten M, Engels, Rutger C. M. E., Janssens, Jan M. A. M., Otten R. The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psycho-pathology in Young Children. Child & Youth Care Forum 2014; 43(2):211–25.

53. Bettge S, Wille N, Barkmann C, Schulte-Markwort M, Ravens-Sieberer U, The Bella Study Group. Depressive symptoms of children and adolescents in a German representative sample: results of the BELLA study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008; 17(1):71–81.

54. Luby JL. Early childhood depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166(9):974–9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08111709 19723795

55. Zahn-Waxler C, Schoen A. Empathy, Prosocial Behaviour and Empathy, Prosocial Behav-iour and Adjustment: Clinical Aspects of Surfeits and Deficits in Concern for Others. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. 2016:1–10.

56. von Klitzing K, Perren S. Untersuchung von Kindergartenkindern mit einem Puppeninterview—Bedeutsamkeit und Anwendung. Kinder-und Jugendmedizin 2008; 8(1):25–30.

57. Perren S, Wyl A von, Stadelmann S, Burgin D, Klitzing K von. Associations between be-havioral/emotional difficulties in kindergarten children and the quality of their peer relation-ships. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006; 45(7):867–76. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000220853.71521.cb 16832324

58. Measelle JR, Ablow JC, Cowan PA, Cowan CP. Assessing young children's views of their academic, social, and emotional lives: An evaluation of the self-perception scales of the berke-ley puppet interview. Child Dev. 1998; 69(6):1556–76. 9914640

59. Klasen H, Woerner W, Rothenberger A, Goodman R. German version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-German)—overview and evaluation of initial validation and normative results. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2003; 52(7):491–502. 14526759

60. Charlesworth WR, La Freniere P. Dominance, friendship, and resource utilization in pre-school children's groups. Ethol Sociobiol. 1983; 4(3):175–86.

61. Svetlova M, Chokrai P, Zeidler H, Tomasello M. “Let’s all stand in line”: Preschoolers’ developing abilities to apply fairness norms in solving group coordi-nation problems. In: Wang Y., & Henderson A. (chairs), editor. Violating norms and agreements: New perspec-tives in early childhood. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, PA.; 2015.

62. Misch A, Over H, Carpenter M. The Whistleblower's Dilemma in Young Children: When Loyalty Trumps Other Moral Concerns. Front Psychol. 2018; 9:250. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00250 29545763

63. Goodman R. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1997; 38(5):581–6. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x 9255702

64. Goodman A, Lamping DL, Ploubidis GB. When to Use Broader Internalising and Exter-nalising Subscales Instead of the Hypothesised Five Subscales on the Strengths and Difficul-ties Questionnaire (SDQ): Data from British Parents, Teachers and Children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010; 38(8):1179–91. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9434-x 20623175

65. Oakley B, Knafo A, Madhavan G, Wilson DS, editors. Pathological altruism. New York: Oxford University Press; 2011.

66. Dunfield KA. A construct divided: prosocial behavior as helping, sharing, and comforting subtypes. Front Psychol. 2014; 5:958. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00958 25228893


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11