Antidepressant prescriptions, discontinuation, depression and perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding: A population cohort analysis

Autoři: Sue Jordan aff001;  Gareth I. Davies aff002;  Daniel S. Thayer aff002;  David Tucker aff001;  Ioan Humphreys aff001
Působiště autorů: College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom aff001;  School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom aff002;  Public Health Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225133



To explore associations between exposure to antidepressants, their discontinuation, depression [medicated or unmediated] and preterm birth [<37 and <32 weeks], small for gestational age (SGA) [<10th and <3rd centiles], breastfeeding [any] at 6–8 weeks.


Design: A population-based cohort study.

Setting: The Secure Anonymised Information Linkage [SAIL] databank in Wales, linking maternal primary care data with infant outcomes.

Participants: 107,573, 105,331, and 38,725 infants born 2000–2010 with information on prematurity, SGA and breastfeeding respectively, after exclusions.

Exposures: Maternal antidepressant prescriptions in trimesters 2 or 3, discontinuation after trimester 1, recorded diagnosis of depression [medicated or unmediated] in pregnancy.

Methods: Odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes were calculated, adjusted for smoking, parity, socio-economic status, and depression.


Exclusive formula feeding at 6–8 weeks was associated with prescriptions in trimesters 2 or 3 for any antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.81, 95% confidence intervals 0.67–0.98), SSRIs [aOR 0.77, 0.62–0.95], particularly higher doses [aOR 0.45, 0.23–0.86], discontinuation of antidepressants or SSRIs after trimester 1 (aOR 0.70, 0.57–0.83 and 0.66, 0.51–0.87), diagnosis of depression aOR 0.76 [0.70–0.82), particularly if medicated (aOR 0.70, 0.58–0.85), rather than unmedicated (aOR 0.87, 0.82–0.92). Preterm birth at <37 and <32 weeks’ gestation was associated with diagnosis of depression (aOR 1.27, 1.17–1.38, and 1.33, 1.09–1.62), particularly if medicated (aOR 1.56, 1.23–1.96, and 1.63, 0.94–2.84); birth at <37 weeks was associated with antidepressants, (aOR 1.24, 1.04–1.49]. SGA <3rd centile was associated with antidepressants (aOR 1.43, 1.07–1.90), and SSRIs (aOR 1.46, 1.06–2.00], particularly higher doses [aOR 2.10, 1.32–3.34]. All adverse outcomes were associated with socio-economic status and smoking.


Exposure to antidepressants or depression increased risks of exclusive formula feeding at 6–8 weeks, and prescription of antidepressants was associated with SGA <3rd centile. Prescription of antidepressants offers a useful marker to target additional support and additional care before and during pregnancy and lactation.

Klíčová slova:

Antidepressants – Depression – Pregnancy – Preterm birth – Primary care – Wales – Women's health


1. McManus S, Meltzer H, Brugha T, Bebbington P, Jenkins R Morbidity in England, 2007: results of a household survey, overview. Adult Psychiatric 2009 NHS Information Centre. Leeds. Available on: accessed 4.1.18 [table on p.41]

2. Gavin NI, Gaynes BN, Lohr KN, Meltzer-Brody S, Gartlehner G, Swinson T. Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of Prevalence and Incidence. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106 [5, Part 1].

3. Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103[4]:698–709. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000116689.75396.5f 15051562

4. Taylor D., Paton C., Kerwin R. The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines, 12th Edition, Informa healthcare, London 2015

5. NCCMH. [National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health] Antenatal and postnatal mental health: Clinical management and service guidance, updated edition, National Clinical Guideline 192. 2014, with 2018 updates Published by The British Psychological Society and The Royal College of Psychiatrists, London.

6. Reefhuis J, Rasmussen SA, Friedman JM. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. NEJM. 2006;354[20]:2188–90.

7. Cooper WO, Willy ME, Pont SJ, Ray WA. Increasing use of antidepressants in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196[6]:544.e1–.e5.

8. Charlton RA, Jordan S, Pierini A, Garne E, Neville AJ, Hansen AV, Gini R, Thayer D, Tingay K, Puccini A, Bos HJ, Nybo Andersen AM, Sinclair M, Dolk H, de Jong-van den Berg LTW SSRI use before, during and after pregnancy: a population-based study in 6 European regions BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015 122[7]:1010–20. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.13143 25352424

9. Olivier JD, Akerud H, Kaihola H, Pawluski JL, Skalkidou A, Högberg U, et al. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013;7:73. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00073 23734100; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3659337.

10. Laine K, Heikkinen T, Ekblad U, Kero P: Effects of exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy on serotonergic symptoms in newborns and cord blood monoamine and prolactin concentrations. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Jul;60[7]:720–6. In. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.7.720 12860776

11. Salisbury AL, Ponder KL, Padbury JF, Lester BM. Fetal effects of psychoactive drugs. Clin Perinatol. 2009;36[3]:595–619. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2009.06.002 19732616; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2767264.

12. Hendrick V, Stowe ZN, Altshuler LL, Hwang S, Lee E, Haynes D. Placental passage of antidepressant medications. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160[5]:993–6. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.993 12727706.

13. Daws LC, Gould GG. Ontogeny and regulation of the serotonin transporter: providing insights into human disorders. Pharmacol Ther. 2011;131[1]:61–79. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.03.013 21447358; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3131109.

14. Santos-Silva AJ, Cairrão E, Marques B, Verde I. Regulation of human umbilical artery contractility by different serotonin and histamine receptors. Reprod Sci. 2009;16[12]:1175–85. doi: 10.1177/1933719109343787 19801536.

15. Ray S, Stowe ZN. The use of antidepressant medication in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28[1]:71–83. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.09.005 24211026.

16. Gentile S, Fusco ML. Placental and fetal effects of antenatal exposure to antidepressants or untreated maternal depression. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 May;30[10]:1189–1199. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2016.1209184 27379818

17. Jordan S, Morris JK, Davies GI, Tucker D, Thayer DS, Luteijn JM, Morgan M, Garne E, Hansen AV, Klungsøyr K, Engeland A, Boyle B, Dolk H Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor [SSRI] antidepressants in Pregnancy and Congenital Anomalies: analysis of linked databases in Wales, Norway and Funen, Denmark. 2016 Plos One 11[12]: e0165122. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165122 27906972

18. Nikfar S, Rahimi R, Hendoiee N, Abdollahi M. Increasing the risk of spontaneous abortion and major malformations in newborns following use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis. Daru. 2012 Nov 1;20[1]:75. doi: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-75 23351929; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3556001.

19. Chambers CD, Johnson KA, Dick LM, Felix RJ, Jones KL. Birth outcomes in pregnant women taking fluoxetine. N Engl J Med. 1996;335[14]:1010–5. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199610033351402 8793924.

20. Maschi S, Clavenna A, Campi R, Schiavetti B, Bernat M, Bonati M. Neonatal outcome following pregnancy exposure to antidepressants: a prospective controlled cohort study. BJOG. 2008;115[2]:283–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01518.x 17903222.

21. Eke AC, Saccone G, Berghella V. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] use during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2016 May 30. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14144 [Epub ahead of print] Review. 27239775.

22. Huang H, Coleman S, Bridge JA, Yonkers K, Katon W. A meta-analysis of the relationship between antidepressant use in pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014;36[1]:13–8. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.08.002 24094568; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3877723.

23. Jeffries A: Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus & Newborn Committee. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy and infant outcomes. position statement available accessed 16.5.13 abridged version Paediatr Child Health 2011;16[9]:562. doi: 10.1093/pch/16.9.562 23115498

24. Toh S, Mitchell AA, Louik C, Werler MM, Chambers CD, Hernández-Díaz S. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and risk of gestational hypertension. Am J Psychiatry. 2009a Mar;166[3]:320–8. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08060817 19122006; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2735348.

25. Chambers CD, Hernandez-Diaz S, Van Marter LJ, Werler MM, Louik C, Jones KL, et al. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. N Engl J Med. 2006;354[6]:579–87. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa052744 16467545.

26. 'tJong GW, Einarson T, Koren G, Einarson A. Antidepressant use in pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn [PPHN]: a systematic review. Reprod Toxicol. 2012 Nov;34[3]:293–7. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.04.015 22564982.

27. Malm H, Sourander A, Gissler M, Gyllenberg D, Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki S, McKeague IW, Artama M, Brown AS. Pregnancy Complications Following Prenatal Exposure to SSRIs or Maternal Psychiatric Disorders: Results From Population-Based National Register Data. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Dec;172[12]:1224–32. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14121575 26238606.

28. Toh S, Mitchell AA, Louik C, Werler MM, Chambers CD, Hernández-Díaz S. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and fetal growth restriction. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009b Dec;29[6]:555–60. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181bf344c 19910720;

29. Yonkers KA, Wisner KL, Stewart DE, Oberlander TF, Dell DL, Stotland N, et al. The management of depression during pregnancy: a report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009;31[5]:403–13. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.04.003 19703633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3094693.

30. International Conference on Harmonisation [ICH]. ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline for Good Clinincal Practice. Institute of Clinical Research, Marlow, Buckinghamshire. 1996. Available at: [Accessed January 2, 2016]. Number 56. In.

31. Ford DV, Jones KH, Verplancke JP, Lyons RA, John G, Brown G, Brooks CJ, Thompson S, Bodger O, Couch T, Leake K. The SAIL Databank: building a national architecture for e-health research and evaluation. BMC Health Services Research. 2009 9:157. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-157 19732426

32. Lyons RA, Jones KH, John G, Brooks CJ, Verplancke JP, Ford DV, Brown G, Leake K. The SAIL databank: linking multiple health and social care datasets. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2009 9:3. doi: 10.1186/1472-6947-9-3 19149883

33. EUROmediCAT. [EMC] Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor [SSRI] antidepressants in Pregnancy and Congenital Anomalies: population cohort study using linked electronic data in 3 countries V2. 2015 Deliverable number 21.–ISBN 978–0956746252

34. Hiemke C, Härtter S. Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Pharmacol Ther. 2000;85[1]:11–28. 10674711.

35. Velasquez JC, Goeden N, Bonnin A. Placental serotonin: implications for the developmental effects of SSRIs and maternal depression. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013;7:47. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00047 23630464; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3632750.

36. Chisholm J. The read clinical classification. Br Med J. 1990;300(6732):1092

37. Robinson D, Schulz E, Brown P, Price C. Updating the Read Codes: user-interactive maintenance of a dynamic clinical vocabulary. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1997;4(6):465–472. doi: 10.1136/jamia.1997.0040465 9391934

38. Willner P, Scheel-Krüger J, Belzung C. The neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37[10 Pt 1]:2331–71. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.12.007 23261405

39. Cohen LS, Altshuler LL, Harlow BL, Nonacs R, Newport DJ, Viguera AC, et al. Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment. JAMA. 2006;295[5]:499–507. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.5.499 16449615.

40. BNF [British National Formulary] British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London. [2017 no. 74]

41. WHO 2013 Per-term Birth Fact Sheet. Available: accessed 18.3.16

42. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health 2015 Early years—UK-WHO growth charts and resources. Available: accessed 12.4.16

43. Statistics Wales Birth Statistics from the National Community Child Health Database [NCCHD] Quality Report 2013 available: accessed 13.4.16

44. McAndrew F., Thompson J., Fellows L., Large A., Speed M. and Renfrew MJ The Infant Feeding Survey 2010. NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care, Office of National Statistics 2012 available: accessed 6.1.18

45. EUROCAT EUROCAT European surveillance of congenital anomalies. Guide 1.4. EUROCAT Central Registry, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Co Antrim, UK. 2013 Available: [accessed 26.2.15]

46. Morrow J, Russell A, Guthrie E, et al. Malformation risks of antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy: a prospective study from the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77[2]:193–8. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2005.074203 16157661

47. Sillesen M, Hjortdal V, Vejlstrup N, Sørensen K. Pregnancy with prosthetic heart valves—30 years' nationwide experience in Denmark. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011 Aug;40[2]:448–54. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.12.011 21277217

48. Casson IF, Clarke CA, Howard CV, et al. Outcomes of pregnancy in insulin dependent diabetic women: results of a five year population cohort study. BMJ 1997;315[7103]:275–8. doi: 10.1136/bmj.315.7103.275 9274545

49. Cooper DL, Petherick ES, Wright J. The association between binge drinking and birth outcomes: results from the Born in Bradford cohort study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Oct;67[10]:821–8. doi: 10.1136/jech-2012-202303 Epub 2013 May 31. 23729326.

50. Jordan S, Charlton RA, Tingay K, Thayer DS, Davies GI, Morgan M, Tucker D, Watkins A, Gini R, Pierini A, Hansen A, Garne E, Nybo Andersen A, Puccini A, Neville AJ, Bos HJ, de Jong-van den Berg LTW, de Vries CS, Dolk H. SSRI use in pregnancy: a study in 6 European databases. The International Marcé Society For Perinatal Mental Health Biennial Scientific Conference, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, Uk. Abstract Booklet The Marce Society. Arch Womens Ment Health 2015 18:269–408 P.368 doi: 10.1007/S00737-014-0488-6

51. Fewell Zoe, Smith George Davey, Sterne Jonathan A. C., The Impact of Residual and Unmeasured Confounding in Epidemiologic Studies: A Simulation Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 166, Issue 6, 15 September 2007, Pages 646–655, doi: 10.1093/aje/kwm165 17615092

52. Royston P, Moons KG, Altman DG, Vergouwe Y Prognosis and prognostic research. Developing a prognostic model. BMJ 2009 338: b604. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b604 19336487

53. Townsend P, Phillimore P, Beattie A: Health and Deprivation: Inequality and the North. London: Routledge; 1988.

54. IBM Corp. Released. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. 2011

55. Weightman AL, Morgan HE, Shepherd MA, Kitcher H, Roberts C, Dunstan FD. Social inequality and infant health in the UK: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ Open. 2012;2[3]:e000964. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000964 22700833

56. Delpisheh A, Kelly Y, Rizwan S, Attia E, Drammond S, Brabin BJ. Population attributable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes related to smoking in adolescents and adults. Public Health. 2007 Nov;121[11]:861–8. Epub 2007 Jul 2. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2007.03.015 17606278.

57. Kozuki N, Lee AC, Silveira MF, et al. The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2013;13[Suppl 3]:S2. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S2 24564800

58. Jordan S., Emery S., Bradshaw C., Watkins A., Friswell W. The Impact of Intrapartum Analgesia on Infant Feeding. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2005 112, 927–34 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2005.00548.x 15957994

59. Jordan S, Emery S, Watkins A, Evans J, Storey M, Morgan G. Associations of drugs routinely given in labour with breastfeeding at 48 hours: analysis of the Cardiff Births Survey. BJOG 2009; 116[12] 1622–30 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02256.x 19735379

60. Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, Melville JL, Iyengar S, Katon WJ. A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;67[10]:1012–24. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.111 20921117

61. Tak CR, Job KM, Schoen-Gentry K, Campbell SC, Carroll P, Costantine M, Brixner D, Birnbaum AK, Sherwin CMT. The impact of exposure to antidepressant medications during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes: a review of retrospective database cohort studies. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Sep;73[9]:1055–1069. doi: 10.1007/s00228-017-2269-4 Epub 2017 Jun 9. Review. 28600701.

62. Grigoriadis S, Vonderporten EH, Mamisashvili L, Tomlinson G, Dennis CL, Koren G, Steiner M, Mousmanis P, Cheung A, Radford K, Martinovic J, Ross LE. The impact of maternal depression during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013 Apr;74[4]:e321–41. doi: 10.4088/JCP.12r07968 Review. 23656857.

63. Ross LE, Grigoriadis S, Mamisashvili L, VonderPorten EH, Roerecke M, Rehm J, Dennis C, Koren G, Steiner M, Mousmanis P, Cheung A. Selected Pregnancy and Delivery Outcomes After Exposure to Antidepressant MedicationA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70[4]:436–443. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.684 23446732

64. Viktorin A, Meltzer-Brody S, Kuja-Halkola R, Sullivan PF, Landén M, Lichtenstein P, Magnusson PK. Heritability of Perinatal Depression and Genetic Overlap With Nonperinatal Depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Feb 1;173[2]:158–65. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15010085 26337037.

65. Wadhwa PD, Entringer S, Buss C, Lu MC. The contribution of maternal stress to preterm birth: issues and considerations. Clin Perinatol. 2011 Sep;38[3]:351–84. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2011.06.007 Review. 21890014.

66. Christiaens I, Hegadoren K, Olson DM. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study. BMC Med. 2015 Jun 11;13:124. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0353-0 26063042

67. Hannerfors AK, Hellgren C, Schijven D, Iliadis SI, Comasco E, Skalkidou A, Olivier JD, Sundström-Poromaa I. Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

68. Zhao X, Liu Q, Cao S, Pang J, Zhang H, Feng T, Deng Y, Yao J, Li H. A meta-analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use during prenatal depression and risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age. J Affect Disord. 2018 Dec 1;241:563–570. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.061 Epub 2018 Aug 15. 30153640.

69. Venkatesh KK, Castro VM, Perlis RH, Kaimal AJ. Impact of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes among women previously treated for depression: an observational cohort study. J Perinatol. 2017 Sep;37(9):1003–1009. doi: 10.1038/jp.2017.92 Epub 2017 Jul 6. 28682318.

70. Malin G, Morris R, Riley R, Teune M, Khan K. When is birthweight at term [≥37 weeks’ gestation] abnormally low? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic and predictive ability of current birthweight standards for childhood and adult outcomes. Bjog. 2015;122[5]:634–642. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.13282 25601001

71. Huybrechts KF, Bateman BT, Hernandez-Diaz S. Maternal Antidepressant Use and Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn—Reply. JAMA. 2015;314[12]:1294. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.10048 26393857.

72. Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H, Link BG, Schomerus G. Public attitudes regarding individual and structural discrimination: two sides of the same coin? Soc Sci Med. 2014;103:60–6. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.11.014 24507911.


74. Leggett C, Costi L, Morrison JL, Clifton VL, Grzeskowiak LE. Antidepressant Use in Late Gestation and Breastfeeding Rates at Discharge from Hospital. J Hum Lact. 2017 Nov;33[4]:701–709. doi: 10.1177/0890334416678209 Epub 2016 Dec 1. 28984528.

75. Marshall A.M., Nommsen-Rivers L.A., Hernandez L.L., Dewey K.G., Chantry C.J., Gregerson K.A. & Horseman N.D. Serotonin Transport and Metabolism in the Mammary Gland Modulates Secretory Activation and Involution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010 95[2], 837–846 doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-1575 19965920

76. Handal M, Skurtveit S, Furu K, Hernandez-Diaz S, Skovlund E, Nystad W, et al. Motor development in children prenatally exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a large population-based pregnancy cohort study. BJOG. 2015. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.13582 26374234.

77. Gemmel M, Bögi E, Ragan C, Hazlett M, Dubovicky M, van den Hove DL, Oberlander TF, Charlier TD, Pawluski JL. Perinatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication [SSRI] effects on social behaviors, neurodevelopment and the epigenome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 Feb;85:102–116. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.023 28472631

78. Kendall-Tackett K, Hale TW. The use of antidepressants in pregnant and breastfeeding women: a review of recent studies. J Hum Lact. 2010 May;26[2]:187–95. doi: 10.1177/0890334409342071 19652194

79. Merlob P. & Schaefer C. Psychotropic drugs. In: Schaefer C., Peters P., Miller R. [eds] Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation pp.743–774. 2015; Academic Press/ Elsevier, London 3rd edition.

80. Hilli J, Heikkinen T, Rontu R, Lehtimäki T, Kishida I, Aklillu E, Bertilsson L, Vahlberg T, Laine K. MAO-A and COMT genotypes as possible regulators of perinatal serotonergic symptoms after in utero exposure to SSRIs. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 May;19[5]:363–70. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.01.006 19223155

81. Saha MR, Ryan K, Amir LH. Postpartum women's use of medicines and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review. Int Breastfeed J. 2015 Oct 28;10:28. doi: 10.1186/s13006-015-0053-6 eCollection 2015. 26516340

82. Bogen DL, Hanusa BH, Moses-Kolko E, Wisner KL. Are maternal depression or symptom severity associated with breastfeeding intention or outcomes? J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Aug;71[8]:1069–78. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05383blu 20584521

83. Galbally M, Watson SJ, Ball H, Lewis AJ. Breastfeeding, Antidepressants, and Depression in the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Well-Being Study. J Hum Lact. 2018 Mar 1:890334418758658. doi: 10.1177/0890334418758658 29596759.

84. Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJ, França GV, Horton S, Krasevec J, Murch S, Sankar MJ, Walker N, Rollins NC; Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet. 2016 Jan 30;387[10017]:475–90. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01024-7 26869575

85. Lawn JE, Blencowe H, Oza S, You D, Lee AC, Waiswa P, Lalli M, Bhutta Z, Barros AJ, Christian P, Mathers C, Cousens SN; Lancet Every Newborn Study Group. Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival. Lancet. 2014 Jul 12;384[9938]:189–205. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60496-7 Erratum in: Lancet. 2014 Jul 12;384[9938]:132. 24853593

86. Saigal S, Doyle LW. An overview of mortality and sequelae of preterm birth from infancy to adulthood. Lancet. 2008 Jan 19;371[9608]:261–9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60136-1 18207020

87. McIntire D. D., PhD., Bloom S. L., M.D., Casey B. M., M.D., & Leveno K. J., M.D. [1999]. Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. The New England Journal of Medicine, 340[16], 1234–1238. Retrieved from doi: 10.1056/NEJM199904223401603 10210706

88. Mitchell J, Goodman J. Comparative effects of antidepressant medications and untreated major depression on pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2018 Oct;21[5]:505–516. doi: 10.1007/s00737-018-0844-z Epub 2018 Apr 11. Review. 29644439.

89. Alwan S, Friedman JM, Chambers C. Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Pregnancy: A Review of Current Evidence. CNS Drugs. 2016 Jun;30[6]:499–515. doi: 10.1007/s40263-016-0338-3 27138915

90. Sockol LE. A systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for treating and preventing perinatal depression. J Affect Disord. 2015 May 15;177:7–21. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.052 25743368

91. Amick HR, Gartlehner G, Gaynes BN, Forneris C, Asher GN, Morgan LC, et al. Comparative benefits and harms of second generation antidepressants and cognitive behavioral therapies in initial treatment of major depressive disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2015;351:h6019. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h6019 26645251; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4673103.

92. Pearlstein T. Depression during Pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;29[5]:754–64. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.04.004 25976080.

93. Molenaar NM, Brouwer ME, Bockting CL, Bonsel GJ, van der Veere CN, Torij HW, Hoogendijk WJ, Duvekot JJ, Burger H, Lambregtse-van den Berg MP. Stop or go? Preventive cognitive therapy with guided tapering of antidepressants during pregnancy: study protocol of a pragmatic multicentre non-inferiority randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Mar 18;16:72. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0752-6 26993629

94. Kendrick T, King F, Albertella L, Smith PW. GP treatment decisions for patients with depression: an observational study. Br J Gen Pract. 2005;55[513]:280–6. 15826435; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1463130.

95. The European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance [ENCePP]. Guide on Methodological Standards in Pharmacoepidemiology [Revision 7]. EMA/95098/2010. 22.3.19

96. De Vera MA, Bérard A. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Aug;74[2]:362–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04196.x 22435711; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3630756.

97. Purisch SE, DeFranco EA, Muglia LJ, Odibo AO, Stamilio DM. Preterm birth in pregnancies complicated by major congenital malformations: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep;199[3]:287.e1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.06.089 18771986.

98. Miquel-Verges F, Mosley BS, Block AS, Hobbs CA. A spectrum project: preterm birth and small-for-gestational age among infants with birth defects. J Perinatol. 2015 Mar;35[3]:198–203. doi: 10.1038/jp.2014.180 Epub 2014 Oct 2. 25275696.

99. Rothman K. J. No adjustments are needed for multiple comparisons. Epidemiology. 1990 1, 43-6.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Aug;58:104–13. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.04.009

100. Jordan S, Watkins A, Storey M, Allen SJ, Brooks CJ, Garaiova I, Heaven ML, Jones R, Plummer SF, Russell IT, Thornton CA, Morgan G. [2013] Volunteer Bias in Recruitment, Retention, and Blood Sample Donation in a Randomised Controlled Trial Involving Mothers and Their Children at Six Months and Two Years: A Longitudinal Analysis. PLoS ONE 8[7]: e67912. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067912 23874465

101. Martins AC, Giordani F, Rozenfeld S. Adverse drug events among adult inpatients: A meta-analysis of observational studies. J Clin Pharm Ther 2014 Dec;39[6]:609–20 doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12204 25219403

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 11