Genotyping and outcomes of presumptive second line ART failure cases switched to third line or maintained on second line ART in Mumbai, India

Autoři: Naresh Gill aff001;  Rafael Van den Bergh aff002;  Khine Wut Yee Kyaw aff003;  Chinmay Laxmeshwar aff001;  Mrinalini Das aff001;  Sarthak Rastogi aff001;  Miriam Arago Galindo aff001;  Homa Mansoor aff001;  Stobdan Kalon aff001;  Petros Isaakidis aff004
Působiště autorů: Médecins Sans Frontières, Mumbai, India aff001;  Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium aff002;  International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung diseases, Mandalay, Myanmar aff003;  Southern Africa Medical Unit (SAMU), Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225631



HIV programs are increasingly confronted with failing antiretroviral therapy (ART), including second-line regimens. WHO has provided guidelines on switching to third-line ART. In a Médecins Sans Frontières clinic in Mumbai, India, receiving referred presumptive second-line ART failure cases, an evidence-based protocol consisting of viral load (VL) testing, enhanced adherence counselling (EAC) and genotype for switching was implemented.


To document the outcome and genotype of presumptive second-line ART failure cases switched to third-line or maintained on second-line ART.


Retrospective cohort study of patients referred between January 2011 and September 2017.


The cases (n = 120) were complex with median 9.2 years of ART exposure, poor adherence at baseline, and exposure to multiple ART regimens other than recommended by WHO. Out of 90 evaluated cases, 39(43%) were maintained on second-line ART. Forty-nine (54%) were ever switched to third-line ART. Twelve months virological suppression was 72% in the second-line and 93% in the third-line ART cohort, while retention in care was 80% and 94% respectively. Genotyping showed 62% resistance for PIs, and 52% triple class resistance to NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs. Resistance was noted for the new class of integrase inhibitors, and for different drugs without any documented previous exposure to the same drug.


Adopting WHO guidelines on switching ART regimens and provision of EAC can prevent unnecessary switching/exposure to third-line ART regimens. Genotyping is urgently required in national HIV programs, which currently use only the exposure history of patients for switching to third-line ART regimens.

Klíčová slova:

Antimicrobial resistance – Genotyping – HIV epidemiology – India – Mutation detection – Viral load


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2019 Číslo 11