Gender disparities in scientific production: A nationwide assessment among physicians in Peru

Autoři: Elard Amaya aff001;  Benoît Mougenot aff001;  Percy Herrera-Añazco aff003
Působiště autorů: Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Vicerrectorado de Investigación, Centro de Excelencia en Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales en Salud, Lima, Perú aff001;  Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales, Lima, Perú aff002;  Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Vicerrectorado de Investigación, Unidad de Investigación para la Generación y Síntesis de Evidencias en Salud, Lima, Perú aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224629



To determine the presence of a gender gap in the scientific production among Peruvian physicians and analyze either gap is associated with the presence of observable factors or the presence of prejudices against female physicians.


We analyzed data from the National Survey of User Satisfaction in Health 2016, a nationally representative survey that collected information about medical professionals working in health institutions in Peru. The outcome of interest was the number of publications in indexed journals. We estimated the gender gap in scientific production using the Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition method.


From the 2216 physicians surveyed, 252 reported published at least one article in an indexed journal. From physicians with scientific production, 37.7% were women. The analysis of OB decomposition showed a gap of 2.11 indexed publications, disfavoring female physicians (p<0.01). Likewise, the explained component was 1.36 publications, representing 64.5% of the total gap (p<0.05).


There is a gender gap in the number of publications in indexed journals among Peruvian physicians. This gap is mainly explained by observable factors, such as the years of medical practice, being an accredited researcher and being a professor.

Klíčová slova:

Age groups – Gender discrimination – Health informatics – Medicine and health sciences – Peru – Physicians – Professions – Scientific publishing


1. Herrera-Añazco P, Saavedra PJO, Rondán ÁT, Gutiérrez WN, Díaz CA, Armas DJ, et al. Prevalencia y factores asociados a publicar artículos científicos durante la residencia médica en Perú. FEM Rev Fund Educ Médica. 2018;21: 9–16.

2. Jolliff L, Leadley J, Coakley E, Sloane R. Women in US academic medicine and science: statistics and benchmarking report 2011–2012. Washington DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2012.

3. Ruzycki SM, Fletcher S, Earp M, Bharwani A, Lithgow KC. Trends in the Proportion of Female Speakers at Medical Conferences in the United States and in Canada, 2007 to 2017. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2: e192103–e192103. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2103 30977853

4. Silver JK, Poorman JA, Reilly JM, Spector ND, Goldstein R, Zafonte RD. Assessment of women physicians among authors of perspective-type articles published in high-impact pediatric journals. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1: e180802–e180802. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0802 30646033

5. Hsiehchen D, Hsieh A, Espinoza M. Prevalence of Female Authors in Case Reports Published in the Medical Literature. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2: e195000–e195000. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5000 31150085

6. Strand M, Bulik CM. Trends in female authorship in research papers on eating disorders: 20-year bibliometric study. BJPsych Open. 2018;4: 39–46. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2017.8 29467058

7. Filardo G, da Graca B, Sass DM, Pollock BD, Smith EB, Martinez MA-M. Trends and comparison of female first authorship in high impact medical journals: observational study (1994–2014). bmj. 2016;352: i847. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i847 26935100

8. Bendels MH, Müller R, Brueggmann D, Groneberg DA. Gender disparities in high-quality research revealed by Nature Index journals. PloS One. 2018;13: e0189136. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189136 29293499

9. Barnett RC, Carr P, Boisnier AD, Ash A, Friedman RH, Moskowitz MA, et al. Relationships of gender and career motivation to medical faculty members’ production of academic publications. Acad Med. 1998;

10. Elhakimi W, Al Othman A, El Yahia M, Al Dawood A, Al Sadiq S, Mosli M, et al. Female authorship in major endocrinology journals: a 25-year progression. J Endocrinol Metab Diabetes South Afr. 2018;23: 76–79.

11. González-Álvarez J, Cervera-Crespo T. Research production in high-impact journals of contemporary neuroscience: A gender analysis. J Informetr. 2017;11: 232–243.

12. González-Alvarez J. Author gender in The Lancet journals. The Lancet. 2018;391: 2601.

13. Larivière V, Ni C, Gingras Y, Cronin B, Sugimoto CR. Bibliometrics: Global gender disparities in science. Nat News. 2013;504: 211.

14. Carr PL, Ash AS, Friedman RH, Scaramucci A, Barnett RC, Szalacha LE, et al. Relation of family responsibilities and gender to the productivity and career satisfaction of medical faculty. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129: 532–538. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-129-7-199810010-00004 9758572

15. Duch J, Zeng XHT, Sales-Pardo M, Radicchi F, Otis S, Woodruff TK, et al. The possible role of resource requirements and academic career-choice risk on gender differences in publication rate and impact. Plos One. 2012;7: e51332. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051332 23251502

16. Long MT, Leszczynski A, Thompson KD, Wasan SK, Calderwood AH. Female authorship in major academic gastroenterology journals: a look over 20 years. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;81: 1440–1447. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2015.01.032 25887727

17. Jolly S, Griffith KA, DeCastro R, Stewart A, Ubel P, Jagsi R. Gender differences in time spent on parenting and domestic responsibilities by high-achieving young physician-researchers. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160: 344–353. doi: 10.7326/M13-0974 24737273

18. Helmer M, Schottdorf M, Neef A, Battaglia D. Gender bias in scholarly peer review. Elife. 2017;6: e21718. doi: 10.7554/eLife.21718 28322725

19. Boynton JR, Georgiou K, Reid M, Govus A. Gender bias in publishing. The Lancet. 2018;392: 1514–1515.

20. Moss-Racusin CA, Dovidio JF, Brescoll VL, Graham MJ, Handelsman J. Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2012;109: 16474–16479. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1211286109 22988126

21. Jagsi R, Guancial EA, Worobey CC, Henault LE, Chang Y, Starr R, et al. The “gender gap” in authorship of academic medical literature—a 35-year perspective. N Engl J Med. 2006;355: 281–287. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa053910 16855268

22. Herrera-Añazco P, Valenzuela-Rodríguez G, Pacheco-Mendoza J, Málaga G. Scientific production of Vice Chancellors for Research in Peruvian universities with a medical school. Medwave. 2017;17.

23. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI). Perú, Brechas de género, 2016: Avances hacia la igualdad de mujeres y hombres [Internet]. Lima, Perú: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI).; 2016. Available:$FILE/2.Per%C3%BA.Brecha_genero-2016.pdf

24. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI). Encuesta Nacional de Satisfacción de Usuarios en Salud 2016, Informe Final. Lima, Peru: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI); 2016.

25. StataCorp. Stata Survey Data Reference Manual, Release 13. College Station, Texas: Stata Corp LP; 2013.

26. Oaxaca R. Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. Int Econ Rev. 1973;14: 693–709.

27. Blinder AS. Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates. J Hum Resour. 1973;8: 436–455. doi: 10.2307/144855

28. Fortin N, Lemieux T, Firpo S. Chapter 1—Decomposition Methods in Economics. In: Card OA and D, editor. Handbook of Labor Economics. Elsevier; 2011. pp. 1–102. Available:

29. Rey de Castro J. ¿Las instituciones médicas regulatorias del Perú apuestan por el desarrollo de la investigación científica? Rev Medica Hered. 2012;23: 269–270.

30. Mayta-Tristán P, Pereyra-Elías R, Mejía CR. Producción científica de los miembros vitalicios de la academia nacional de investigadores médicos. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Pública. 2013;30: 720–721.

31. Ynalvez MA, Shrum WM. Professional networks, scientific collaboration, and publication productivity in resource-constrained research institutions in a developing country. Res Policy. 2011;40: 204–216. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2010.10.004

32. Pavesi G, Siccardi A, Viale G, Grazioli C, Calciolari T, Tenchini ML, et al. Hedgehogs, humans and high-school science: The benefits of involving high-school students in university research. EMBO Rep. 2008;9: 208–211. doi: 10.1038/embor.2008.25 18311167

33. Manjarin M, Cutri A, Noguerol E, Torres F, Ossorio F, Ferrero F. Enseñanza de la investigación con un sistema de tutores durante la residencia de pediatría. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2007;105: 333–41.

34. Ahmad S, De Oliveira GS Jr, McCarthy RJ. Status of anesthesiology resident research education in the United States: structured education programs increase resident research productivity. Anesth Analg. 2013;116: 205–210. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31826f087d 23223116

35. Ticse R, Pamo O, Samalvides F, Quispe T. Factores asociados a la culminación del proyecto de investigación requerido para optar el título de especialista en una universidad peruana. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Pública. 2014;31: 48–55. 24718526

36. Sidhu R, Rajashekhar P, Lavin VL, Parry J, Attwood J, Holdcroft A, et al. The gender imbalance in academic medicine: a study of female authorship in the United Kingdom. J R Soc Med. 2009;102: 337–342. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2009.080378 19679736

37. Amaya E, Mougenot B. The gender differences in highly paid wage: a case study of Peruvian physicians. Cad Saude Publica. 2019;35(5).

38. Waisbren SE, Bowles H, Hasan T, Zou KH, Emans SJ, Goldberg C, et al. Gender differences in research grant applications and funding outcomes for medical school faculty. J Womens Health. 2008;17: 207–214.

39. Budden AE, Tregenza T, Aarssen LW, Koricheva J, Leimu R, Lortie CJ. Double-blind review favours increased representation of female authors. Trends Ecol Evol. 2008;23: 4–6. 17963996

40. Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Stewart A, Sambuco D, DeCastro R, Ubel PA. Gender differences in the salaries of physician researchers. Jama. 2012;307: 2410–2417. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.6183 22692173

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 11