Residential household yard care practices along urban-exurban gradients in six climatically-diverse U.S. metropolitan areas

Autoři: Dexter H. Locke aff001;  Colin Polsky aff002;  J. Morgan Grove aff001;  Peter M. Groffman aff003;  Kristen C. Nelson aff004;  Kelli L. Larson aff005;  Jeannine Cavender-Bares aff006;  James B. Heffernan aff007;  Rinku Roy Chowdhury aff008;  Sarah E. Hobbie aff006;  Neil D. Bettez aff009;  Sharon J. Hall aff010;  Christopher Neill aff011;  Laura Ogden aff012;  Jarlath O’Neil-Dunne aff013
Působiště autorů: USDA Forest Service, Baltimore Field Station, Baltimore, MD, United States of America aff001;  Florida Atlantic University, Center for Environmental Studies, Davie, FL, United States of America aff002;  CUNY Advanced Science Research Center and Brooklyn College Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences 85 St. Nicholas Terrace, New York, NY, United States of America aff003;  Department of Forest Resources and Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, & Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, MN, United States of America aff004;  Schools of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning and Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States of America aff005;  Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, United States of America aff006;  Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America aff007;  Graduate School of Geography, Worcester, MA, United States of America aff008;  Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, United States of America aff009;  School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States of America aff010;  The Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA, United States of America aff011;  Dartmouth College, Department of Anthropology, Hanover, NH, United States of America aff012;  University of Vermont, Spatial Analysis Lab, Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, Aiken Center, Burlington, VT, United States of America aff013
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222630


Residential land is expanding in the United States, and lawn now covers more area than the country’s leading irrigated crop by area. Given that lawns are widespread across diverse climatic regions and there is rising concern about the environmental impacts associated with their management, there is a clear need to understand the geographic variation, drivers, and outcomes of common yard care practices. We hypothesized that 1) income, age, and the number of neighbors known by name will be positively associated with the odds of having irrigated, fertilized, or applied pesticides in the last year, 2) irrigation, fertilization, and pesticide application will vary quadratically with population density, with the highest odds in suburban areas, and 3) the odds of irrigating will vary by climate, but fertilization and pesticide application will not. We used multi-level models to systematically address nested spatial scales within and across six U.S. metropolitan areas—Boston, Baltimore, Miami, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Phoenix, and Los Angeles. We found significant variation in yard care practices at the household (the relationship with income was positive), urban-exurban gradient (the relationship with population density was an inverted U), and regional scales (city-to-city variation). A multi-level modeling framework was useful for discerning these scale-dependent outcomes because this approach controls for autocorrelation at multiple spatial scales. Our findings may guide policies or programs seeking to mitigate the potentially deleterious outcomes associated with water use and chemical application, by identifying the subpopulations most likely to irrigate, fertilize, and/or apply pesticides.

Klíčová slova:

Agricultural irrigation – Fertilization – Fertilizers – Mathematical models – Neighborhoods – Pesticides – Population density – Urban areas


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2019 Číslo 11