1. Bazzoli GJ, Clement JP, Hsieh HM. Community Benefit activities of private, nonprofit hospitals. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2010;35(6):999–1026. doi: 10.1215/03616878-2010-036 21451160
2. Singh SR, Bakken E, Kindig DA, Young GJ. Hospital community benefit in the context of the larger public health system: A state-level analysis of hospital and governmental public health spending across the United States. J Public Health Manage Pract. 2016;22(2):164–74.
3. Fleischhacker SE, Ramachandran G. The hospital community benefit program: Implications for food and nutrition professionals. Nutr Today. 2016;51(4):191–3. doi: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000165 27773946
4. Xu A-j, Shi Y-j, Yang X-w, Zhou C-h. Study to determine the behavior expressionof hospitas’l social responsibilities. Chinese jouranl hospital administrative 2012;28(9):651–5.
5. Song PH, Lee SY, Alexander JA, Seiber EE. Hospital ownership and community benefit: looking beyond uncompensated care. Journal of healthcare management / American College of Healthcare Executives. 2013;58(2):126–41; discussion 41–42. 23650697
6. Qingyue M, Shenglan T. Universal health care coverage in China: challenges and opportunities. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2013;77:330–40.
7. Mossialos E, Wenzl M, Osborn R, Sarnak D. 2015 international profiles of health care systems. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Retrieved August 6, 2019. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/sites/default/files/documents/_media_files_publications_fund_report_2016_jan_1857_mossialos_intl_profiles_2015_v7.pdf.
8. Blumenthal D, Hsiao W. Privatization and its discontents—the evolving Chinese health care system. Mass Medical Soc; 2005.
9. Sussmuth-Dyckerhoff C, Wang J. China’s Health Care Reforms. Health International 2010, Number 10:55–67. Retrieved August 6, 2019 from: https://wwwmckinseycom/~/media/mckinsey/dotcom/client_service/healthcare%20systems%20and%20services/health%20international/hi10_china_healthcare_reformashx.
10. Liu G, Huang J. Global Hospital Managment Survey—China (updated 2014). Retrieved March 5, 2019. https://wwwhbsedu/faculty/conferences/2014-world-management-survey/Documents/GlobalHospital_Management_Survey_Horakpdf.
11. Yu H. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China’s success? Health policy. 2015;119(9):1145–52. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2015.07.008 26251322
12. Yip WC-M, Hsiao WC, Chen W, Hu S, Ma J, Maynard A. Early appraisal of China’s huge and complex health-care reforms. The Lancet. 2012;379(9818):833–42.
13. Yip W, Hsiao W. Harnessing the privatisation of China’s fragmented health-care delivery. The Lancet. 2014;384(9945):805–18.
14. Li L. Review of advances in the new health system reform. Chinese Health Economics. 2012;31(1):5–9.
15. Ministry of Health (MOH). Third-tier hospital performance standard guidelines. 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2019. http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/yzygj/s3585u/201112/2e2dced4731f46f5bdabd3dcaff83684.shtml
16. American Hospital Association (AHA). Fast Facts on US Hospitals (Updated January 2017). Retrieved April 21, 2019. http://www.aha.org/research/rc/stat-studies/fast-facts.shtml.
17. Corrigan J, Fisher E, Heiser S. Hospital community benefit programs: Increasing benefits to communities. JAMA. 2015;313(12):1211–2. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.0609 25643208
18. Internal Revenue Service (IRS). (January, 2017). Exemption requirements—501(c)(3) organizations (updated 26-jan-2017). Retrieved April 21, 2019. https://www.irs.gov/charities-non-profits/charitable-organizations/exemption-requirements-section-501-c-3-organizations.
19. Larner L. Health policy brief: Nonprofit hospitals’ community benefit requirements Retrieved March 5, 2019. http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2016/02/25/health-policy-brief-nonprofit-hospitals-community-benefit/.
20. Steinwald B. Nonprofit hospitals; variation in standards and guidance limits: Comparison of how hospitals meet community benefit requirements: DIANE Publishing; 2008.
21. Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Schedule H (Form 990), Hospitals accessed. irs.gov; 2016 [updated 21-Sep-2016. Retrieved August 6, 2019. https://www.irs.gov/uac/about-schedule-h-form-990.
22. Boddie-Willis CL, Brow AL, Folkemer DC, Milligan C, Mueller CH, Somerville MH, et al. Hospital Community Benefits After the ACA: The Emerging Federal Framework. 2011.
23. Folkemer D, Spicer L, Mueller C, Somerville M, Brow A, Milligan C. Hospital community benefits after the ACA: The emerging federal framework (Issue Brief). Baltimore, MD: The Hilltop Institute, UMBC. 2011.
24. Zimmerman D. Nonprofit organizations, social benefits, and tax policy. National Tax Journal. 1991;44(3):341–9.
25. Nicholson S, Pauly MV, Burns LR, Baumritter A, Asch DA. Measuring community benefits provided by for-profit and nonprofit hospitals. Health Affairs. 2000;19(6):168–77. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.19.6.168 11192400
26. Ren-zong Q. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, China; On hospital’s social responsibilities: from the perspective of ethics [J]. Medicine & Philosophy (Humanistic & Social Medicine Edition). 2006;6.
27. Ginn GO, Moseley CB. The impact of state community benefit laws on the community health orientation and health promotion services of hospitals. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2006;31(2):321–44. doi: 10.1215/03616878-31-2-321 16638834
28. SSCO. Shanghai spiritual civilization office, announcement of Shanghai organizations of excellence social responsibility reporting guidelines. (updated February, 2012). Retrieved August 6, 2019. http://www.wmsh.gov.cn/gg/201203/t20120301_95681.htm [Chinese].
29. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Form CMS-2552-10: Worksheet S-10—Hospital Uncompensated and Indigent Care Data. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2019. https://www.costreportdata.com/instructions/Instr_S100.pdf.
30. American Hospital Association (AHA). Statement of the American Hospital Association submitted to the Committee on Finance of the United States Senate on Bipartisan Tax Reform. AHA; 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2019. http://www.aha.org/advocacy-issues/testimony/2015/150415-statement-taxreform.pdf.
31. Catholic Health Association (CHA). Community benefit overview. The Catholic Health Association of the United States. CHA; 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2019. http://www.chausa.org/.
32. Hai-chao L. Study on the Definition and Its Enhancement Options of Public-Interests Orientation of Public Hospitals. Chinese Health Economics. 2012;31(1):10–2.
33. Weijun M. An Approach to the Connotation and Denotation of Public Welfare Nature of Public Hospitals. Medicine and Society. 2009;4:013.
34. AHA. American Hospital Association. AHA guidance on reporting of community benefit. 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2019. http://www.aha.org/content/00-10/061113cbreporting.pdf.
35. Xu A-j, Shi Y-j, Yang X-w. Study on classification of hospital community benefit behaviors. China Pharmacy. 2012;23(41):3853–4.
36. Rowe G, Wright G. The Delphi technique as a forecasting tool: issues and analysis. International journal of forecasting. 1999;15(4):353–75.
37. Keeney S, McKenna H, Hasson F. The Delphi technique in nursing and health research: John Wiley & Sons; 2010.
38. Hansen K. Attitudes to evidence in acupuncture: an interview study. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. 2012;15(3):279–85.
39. Qualtrics. Security Statement. Retrieved May 2, 2018. https://www.qualtrics.com/security-statement/.
40. Hasson F, Keeney S, McKenna H. Research guidelines for the Delphi survey technique. Journal of advanced nursing. 2000;32(4):1008–15. 11095242
41. Verkade P-J, van Meijel B, Brink C, van Os-Medendorp H, Koekkoek B, Francke AL. Delphi-research exploring essential components and preconditions for case management in people with dementia. BMC geriatrics. 2010;10(1):54.
42. Akins RB, Tolson H, Cole BR. Stability of response characteristics of a Delphi panel: application of bootstrap data expansion. BMC medical research methodology. 2005;5(1):37.
43. Ministry of Health (MOH). Hospital management appraisal guide. Retrieved March 5, 2019. http://www.moh.gov.cn/mohyzs/s3585/200806/36242.shtml.
44. Ministry of Health (MOH). Second-tier hospital performance standard guidelines-2012. Retrieved March 5, 2019. http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/cmsresources/mohylfwjgs/cmsrsdocument/doc14985.pdf.
45. Xu A. Behaviors of public hospitals’ social responsibilities based on the content analsis. Nanjing Social Science 2011:(4):146–151. 2011.
46. Lin L, Ashkenazi I, Dorn BC, Savoia E. The public health system response to the 2008 Sichuan province earthquake: a literature review and interviews. Disasters. 2014;38(4):753–73. doi: 10.1111/disa.12079 25196335
47. Gale L. Nonprofit salaries for healthcare executives on the rise. Healthcare Dive; 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2019. http://www.healthcaredive.com/news/nonprofit-salaries-for-healthcare-executives-on-the-rise/437566/.
48. Landen R. Another year of pay hikes for non-profit hospital CEOs. ModernHealthcare; 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2019.: http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20140809/MAGAZINE/308099987.
49. Lei J, Sockolow P, Guan P, Meng Q, Zhang J. A comparison of electronic health records at two major Peking University Hospitals in China to United States meaningful use objectives. BMC medical informatics and decision making. 2013;13(1):96.
50. Kalisch BJ, Liu Y. Comparison of nursing: China and the United States. Nursing Economics. 2009;27(5):322. 19927447
51. Yi Z-M, Zhao R-S, Zhai S-D, Yang L, Hu Y-F, Yang Y-H, et al. Comparison of US and Chinese pharmacy education programs. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 2014;71(5):425–9. doi: 10.2146/ajhp130611 24534598
52. Daemmrich A, Mohanty A. Healthcare reform in the United States and China: pharmaceutical market implications. Journal of pharmaceutical policy and practice. 2014;7(1):9. doi: 10.1186/2052-3211-7-9 25097759