Cost-effectiveness of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube versus tuberculin skin test for diagnosis and treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in primary health care workers in Brazil


Autoři: Rafaela Borge Loureiro aff001;  Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel aff002;  Rosangela Caetano aff004;  Renata Lyrio Peres aff002;  Geisa Fregona aff002;  Jonathan E. Golub aff006;  José Ueleres Braga aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine (IMS), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil aff001;  Laboratory of Epidemiology (Lab-Epi), Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES, Brazil aff002;  Graduate Program in Collective Health (PPGSC), Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES, Brazil aff003;  Department of Health Policy, Planning and Administration, Institute of Social Medicine (IMS), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil aff004;  Center of Infectious Diseases (NDI), Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES, Brazil aff005;  Division of Infectious Diseases, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225197

Souhrn

Objectives

The goal of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis from the public health system perspective, comparing five strategies for Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) diagnosis in primary health care workers in Brazil.

Design

Analytical model for decision making, characterized by cost-effectiveness analysis.

Setting

Primary Care Level, considering primary health care workers in Brazil.

Participants

An analytical model for decision making, characterized by a tree of probabilities of events, was developed considering a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 primary health care workers, using the software TreeAge Pro 2013 to simulate the clinical and economic impacts of new diagnostic technology (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-Tube) versus the traditional tuberculin skin test.

Methods

This model simulated five diagnostic strategies for LTBI in primary health care workers (HCW) in Brazil: tuberculin skin testing using ≥5 mm cut-off, tuberculin skin testing ≥10 mm cut-off, QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-Tube, tuberculin skin testing using ≥5 mm cut-off confirmed by QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube if TST positive, tuberculin skin testing using ≥10 mm cut-off confirmed by QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube if TST positive.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The outcome measures are the number of individuals correctly classified by the test and the number of Tuberculosis cases avoided.

Results

The most cost-effective strategy was the tuberculin skin test considering ≥10mm cut-off. The isolated use of the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube revealed the strategy of lower efficiency with incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$ 146.05 for each HCW correctly classified by the test.

Conclusions

The tuberculin skin test using ≥10 mm cut-off was the most cost-effective strategy in the diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in primary health care works in Brazil.

Klíčová slova:

Brazil – Cost-effectiveness analysis – Diagnostic medicine – Isoniazid – Skin tests – Tuberculin – Tuberculosis – Tuberculosis diagnosis and management


Zdroje

1. Maloney SA, Pearson ML, Gordon MT, Del Castillo R, Boyle JF, Jarvis WR. Efficacy of control measures in preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to patients and health care workers. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(2):90–5. Epub 1995/01/15. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-122-2-199501150-00002 7993001.

2. McKenna MT, Hutton M, Cauthen G, Onorato IM. The association between occupation and tuberculosis. A population-based survey. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(3 Pt 1):587–93. Epub 1996/09/01. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.154.3.8810591 8810591.

3. Sepkowitz KA, Friedman CR, Hafner A, Kwok D, Manoach S, Floris M, et al. Tuberculosis among urban health care workers: a study using restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21(5):1098–101. Epub 1995/11/01. doi: 10.1093/clinids/21.5.1098 8589127.

4. CDC. Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings. MMWR. 2005;54(No. RR-17):1–141. 16382216

5. WHO. Global tuberculosis report 2018. World Health Organization2019. 231 p. p.

6. Dye C, Watt CJ, Bleed DM, Hosseini SM, Raviglione MC. Evolution of tuberculosis control and prospects for reducing tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and deaths globally. JAMA. 2005;293(22):2767–75. Epub 2005/06/09. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.22.2767 15941807.

7. Houben RM, Dodd PJ. The Global Burden of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Re-estimation Using Mathematical Modelling. PLoS Med. 2016;13(10):e1002152. Epub 2016/10/26. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002152 27780211; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5079585.

8. Raviglione M, Marais B, Floyd K, Lonnroth K, Getahun H, Migliori GB, et al. Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments. Lancet. 2012;379(9829):1902–13. Epub 2012/05/23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60727-2 22608339.

9. Cattamanchi A, Smith R, Steingart KR, Metcalfe JZ, Date A, Coleman C, et al. Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56(3):230–8. Epub 2011/01/18. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31820b07ab 21239993; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3383328.

10. Saúde B, Saúde Md, em SdV. O controle da tuberculose no Brasil: avanços, inovações e desafios. Boletim Epidemiológico. 2014;44(2):1–13.

11. Transmissíveis, B, Saúde Md, Saúde SdVe, Doenças DdVd. Brasil Livre da Tuberculose: Plano Nacional pelo Fim da Tuberculose como Problema de Saúde Pública. Brasilia2017. 52 p p.

12. BRASIL, Saúde Md, em SdV. Brasil Livre da Tuberculose: evolução dos cenários epidemiológicos e operacionais da doença. Boletim Epidemiológico. 2019;50(9):1–18.

13. Conde MB, Melo FA, Marques AM, Cardoso NC, Pinheiro VG, Dalcin Pde T, et al. III Brazilian Thoracic Association Guidelines on tuberculosis. J Bras Pneumol. 2009;35(10):1018–48. Epub 2009/11/18. doi: 10.1590/s1806-37132009001000011 19918635.

14. WHO, Department ST, Epidemic, Alert P, Department R, Department HA, et al. WHO policy on TB infection control in health-care facilities, congregate settings and households. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2009. 100 p. p.

15. Barnes PF. Diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection: turning glitter to gold. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170(1):5–6. Epub 2004/06/29. doi: 10.1164/rccm.2404004 15220119.

16. Huebner RE, Schein MF, Bass JB Jr. The tuberculin skin test. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;17(6):968–75. Epub 1993/12/01. doi: 10.1093/clinids/17.6.968 8110954.

17. Menzies D, Pai M, Comstock G. Meta-analysis: new tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(5):340–54. Epub 2007/03/07. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-146-5-200703060-00006 17339619.

18. Tissot F, Zanetti G, Francioli P, Zellweger JP, Zysset F. Influence of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination on size of tuberculin skin test reaction: to what size? Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(2):211–7. Epub 2005/01/19. doi: 10.1086/426434 15655737.

19. Ponce de Leon D, Acevedo-Vasquez E, Alvizuri S, Gutierrez C, Cucho M, Alfaro J, et al. Comparison of an interferon-gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing for detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a TB-endemic population. J Rheumatol. 2008;35(5):776–81. Epub 2008/04/10. 18398944.

20. Andersen P, Munk ME, Pollock JM, Doherty TM. Specific immune-based diagnosis of tuberculosis. Lancet. 2000;356(9235):1099–104. Epub 2000/09/29. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(00)02742-2 11009160.

21. Arend SM, van Meijgaarden KE, de Boer K, de Palou EC, van Soolingen D, Ottenhoff TH, et al. Tuberculin skin testing and in vitro T cell responses to ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10 after infection with Mycobacterium marinum or M. kansasii. J Infect Dis. 2002;186(12):1797–807. Epub 2002/11/26. doi: 10.1086/345760 12447766.

22. Ferrara G, Losi M, Meacci M, Meccugni B, Piro R, Roversi P, et al. Routine hospital use of a new commercial whole blood interferon-gamma assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(5):631–5. Epub 2005/06/18. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200502-196OC 15961696.

23. Ferrara G, Losi M, D'Amico R, Roversi P, Piro R, Meacci M, et al. Use in routine clinical practice of two commercial blood tests for diagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a prospective study. Lancet. 2006;367(9519):1328–34. Epub 2006/04/25. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68579-6 16631911.

24. Control ECfDPa. Use of interferon-gamma release assays in support of TB diagnosis. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2011.

25. Pooran A, Booth H, Miller RF, Scott G, Badri M, Huggett JF, et al. Different screening strategies (single or dual) for the diagnosis of suspected latent tuberculosis: a cost effectiveness analysis. BMC Pulm Med. 2010;10:7. Epub 2010/02/23. doi: 10.1186/1471-2466-10-7 20170555; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2837635.

26. Steffen RE, Caetano R, Pinto M, Chaves D, Ferrari R, Bastos M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Quantiferon(R)-TB Gold-in-Tube versus tuberculin skin testing for contact screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in Brazil. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e59546. Epub 2013/04/18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059546 23593145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3617186.

27. Nienhaus A, Schablon A, Costa JT, Diel R. Systematic review of cost and cost-effectiveness of different TB-screening strategies. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:247. Epub 2011/10/04. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-247 21961888; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3196701.

28. UK NCCfCC, NICE CfCPa. Tuberculosis: Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis, and Measures for Its Prevention and Control. London2011.

29. Denkinger CM, Dheda K, Pai M. Guidelines on interferon-gamma release assays for tuberculosis infection: concordance, discordance or confusion? Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17(6):806–14. Epub 2011/06/21. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03555.x 21682801.

30. BRASIL, Saúde Md, Saúde SdVe, Vigilância Dd. Manual de recomendações para o controle da tuberculose no Brasil. Brasilia2011. 284 p p.

31. Trajman A, Long R, Zylberberg D, Dion MJ, Al-Otaibi B, Menzies D. Factors associated with treatment adherence in a randomised trial of latent tuberculosis infection treatment. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14(5):551–9. Epub 2010/04/16. 20392347.

32. Prophylaxis IUATCo. Efficacy of various durations of isoniazid preventive therapy for tuberculosis: five years of follow-up in the IUAT trial. International Union Against Tuberculosis Committee on Prophylaxis. Bull World Health Organ. 1982;60(4):555–64. Epub 1982/01/01. 6754120; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2536088.

33. COMMITTEE TVCT. BCG and vole bacillus vaccines in the prevention of tuberculosis in adolescence and early adult life. Bull World Health Organ. 1972;46(3):371–85. Epub 1972/01/01. 4537855; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2480749.

34. Vynnycky E, Fine PE. The natural history of tuberculosis: the implications of age-dependent risks of disease and the role of reinfection. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;119(2):183–201. Epub 1997/11/18. doi: 10.1017/s0950268897007917 9363017; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2808840.

35. Pai M, Zwerling A, Menzies D. Systematic review: T-cell-based assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: an update. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(3):177–84. Epub 2008/07/03. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-149-3-200808050-00241 18593687; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2951987.

36. Zwerling A, van den Hof S, Scholten J, Cobelens F, Menzies D, Pai M. Interferon-gamma release assays for tuberculosis screening of healthcare workers: a systematic review. Thorax. 2012;67(1):62–70. Epub 2011/01/14. doi: 10.1136/thx.2010.143180 21228420.

37. Diel R, Goletti D, Ferrara G, Bothamley G, Cirillo D, Kampmann B, et al. Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2011;37(1):88–99. Epub 2010/10/30. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00115110 21030451.

38. Diel R, Loddenkemper R, Meywald-Walter K, Gottschalk R, Nienhaus A. Comparative performance of tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In Tube assay, and T-Spot.TB test in contact investigations for tuberculosis. Chest. 2009;135(4):1010–8. Epub 2008/11/20. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-2048 19017873.

39. Diel R, Loddenkemper R, Nienhaus A. Evidence-based comparison of commercial interferon-gamma release assays for detecting active TB: a metaanalysis. Chest. 2010;137(4):952–68. Epub 2009/12/22. doi: 10.1378/chest.09-2350 20022968.

40. Player S. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making. Healthc Financ Manage. 1998;52(8):66–70. Epub 1998/07/06. 10182280. 10182280

41. Jasmer RM, Nahid P, Hopewell PC. Clinical practice. Latent tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(23):1860–6. Epub 2002/12/06. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp021045 12466511.

42. LoBue PA, Moser KS. Use of isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection in a public health clinic. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168(4):443–7. Epub 2003/05/15. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200303-390OC 12746255.

43. Horsburgh CR Jr., Goldberg S, Bethel J, Chen S, Colson PW, Hirsch-Moverman Y, et al. Latent TB infection treatment acceptance and completion in the United States and Canada. Chest. 2010;137(2):401–9. Epub 2009/10/02. doi: 10.1378/chest.09-0394 19793865.

44. Khan K, Muennig P, Behta M, Zivin JG. Global drug-resistance patterns and the management of latent tuberculosis infection in immigrants to the United States. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(23):1850–9. Epub 2002/12/06. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa021099 12466510.

45. Comstock GW. How much isoniazid is needed for prevention of tuberculosis among immunocompetent adults? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999;3(10):847–50. Epub 1999/10/19. 10524579.

46. Nolan CM, Goldberg SV, Buskin SE. Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid preventive therapy: a 7-year survey from a public health tuberculosis clinic. JAMA. 1999;281(11):1014–8. Epub 1999/03/23. doi: 10.1001/jama.281.11.1014 10086436.

47. Steele MA, Burk RF, DesPrez RM. Toxic hepatitis with isoniazid and rifampin. A meta-analysis. Chest. 1991;99(2):465–71. Epub 1991/02/01. doi: 10.1378/chest.99.2.465 1824929.

48. Fountain FF, Tolley E, Chrisman CR, Self TH. Isoniazid hepatotoxicity associated with treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: a 7-year evaluation from a public health tuberculosis clinic. Chest. 2005;128(1):116–23. Epub 2005/07/09. doi: 10.1378/chest.128.1.116 16002924.

49. Saukkonen JJ, Cohn DL, Jasmer RM, Schenker S, Jereb JA, Nolan CM, et al. An official ATS statement: hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174(8):935–52. Epub 2006/10/06. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200510-1666ST 17021358.

50. Linas BP, Wong AY, Freedberg KA, Horsburgh CR Jr. Priorities for screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(5):590–601. Epub 2011/05/13. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201101-0181OC 21562129; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3175546.

51. Leung CC, Rieder HL, Lange C, Yew WW. Treatment of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: update 2010. Eur Respir J. 2011;37(3):690–711. Epub 2010/08/10. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00079310 20693257.

52. Millard PS, Wilcosky TC, Reade-Christopher SJ, Weber DJ. Isoniazid-related fatal hepatitis. West J Med. 1996;164(6):486–91. Epub 1996/06/01. 8764622; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1303623.

53. Salpeter SR, Sanders GD, Salpeter EE, Owens DK. Monitored isoniazid prophylaxis for low-risk tuberculin reactors older than 35 years of age: a risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127(12):1051–61. Epub 1997/12/31. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-127-12-199712150-00001 9412307.

54. Canada, C, Health Mo, Diseases CfC, Control I, of PHA. Canadian Tuberculosis Standards, 7th Edition2014. 468 p p.

55. Diel R, Nienhaus A, Loddenkemper R. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-gamma release assay screening for latent tuberculosis infection treatment in Germany. Chest. 2007;131(5):1424–34. Epub 2007/05/15. doi: 10.1378/chest.06-2728 17494792.

56. Lee JY, Choi HJ, Park IN, Hong SB, Oh YM, Lim CM, et al. Comparison of two commercial interferon-gamma assays for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Eur Respir J. 2006;28(1):24–30. Epub 2006/04/14. doi: 10.1183/09031936.06.00016906 16611658.

57. Shahidi N, Fu YT, Qian H, Bressler B. Performance of interferon-gamma release assays in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18(11):2034–42. Epub 2012/02/02. doi: 10.1002/ibd.22901 22294550.

58. Metcalfe JZ, Everett CK, Steingart KR, Cattamanchi A, Huang L, Hopewell PC, et al. Interferon-gamma release assays for active pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in adults in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 4:S1120–9. Epub 2011/10/26. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir410 21996694; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3192542.

59. BRASIL, Saúde Md, Secretaria de Ciência TeIE, Tecnologia DdCe. Diretrizes Metodológicas Estudos de Avaliação Econômica de Tecnologias em Saúde. Brasilia2009. 150 p p.

60. Mancuso JD, Niebuhr DW, Frick KD, Keep LW, Anderson KM. Cost-effectiveness analysis of targeted and sequential screening strategies for latent tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15(9):1223–30, i. Epub 2011/09/29. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.10.0542 21943850.

61. Kowada A, Takasaki J, Kobayashi N. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-gamma release assay for systematic tuberculosis screening of healthcare workers in low-incidence countries. J Hosp Infect. 2015;89(2):99–108. Epub 2015/01/07. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.10.002 25559158.

62. Marra F, Marra CA, Sadatsafavi M, Moran-Mendoza O, Cook V, Elwood RK, et al. Cost-effectiveness of a new interferon-based blood assay, QuantiFERON-TB Gold, in screening tuberculosis contacts. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(12):1414–24. Epub 2008/11/20. 19017451.

63. de Perio MA, Tsevat J, Roselle GA, Kralovic SM, Eckman MH. Cost-effectiveness of interferon gamma release assays vs tuberculin skin tests in health care workers. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(2):179–87. Epub 2009/01/28. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2008.524 19171815.

64. CDC, Mazurek GH, Villarino ME. Guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB test for diagnosing latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003;52(RR-2):15–8. Epub 2003/02/14. 12583541.

65. Canadian Tuberculosis C. Updated recommendations on interferon gamma release assays for latent tuberculosis infection. An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS). Can Commun Dis Rep. 2008;34(ACS-6):1–13. Epub 2008/11/04. 18979589.

66. Canadian Tuberculosis C. Recommendations on interferon gamma release assays for latent tuberculosis infection. An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS)—2010 Update. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2010;36(ACS-5):1–22. Epub 2008/11/04. PubMed PMID: 18979589.

67. Deuffic-Burban S, Atsou K, Viget N, Melliez H, Bouvet E, Yazdanpanah Y. Cost-effectiveness of QuantiFERON-TB test vs. tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14(4):471–81. Epub 2010/03/06. 20202306.

68. Fox BD, Kramer MR, Mor Z, Preiss R, Rusanov V, Fuks L, et al. The QuantiFERON-TB-GOLD assay for tuberculosis screening in healthcare workers: a cost-comparison analysis. Lung. 2009;187(6):413–9. Epub 2009/10/16. doi: 10.1007/s00408-009-9182-2 19830489.

69. CDC. Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection. MMWR. 2000;49(No. RR-06):1–54.

70. Do AN, Limpakarnjarat K, Uthaivoravit W, Zuber PL, Korattana S, Binkin N, et al. Increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection related to the occupational exposures of health care workers in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999;3(5):377–81. Epub 1999/05/20. 10331725.

71. Esteban J, Gadea I, Fernandez-Roblas R, Granizo JJ, Soriano F. Tuberculous infection in student nurses in Madrid, Spain. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2001;5(6):583–4. Epub 2001/06/21. 11409589.

72. Garcia-Garcia ML, Jimenez-Corona A, Jimenez-Corona ME, Ferreyra-Reyes L, Martinez K, Rivera-Chavira B, et al. Factors associated with tuberculin reactivity in two general hospitals in Mexico. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22(2):88–93. Epub 2001/03/10. doi: 10.1086/501869 11232884.

73. Harada N, Nakajima Y, Higuchi K, Sekiya Y, Rothel J, Mori T. Screening for tuberculosis infection using whole-blood interferon-gamma and Mantoux testing among Japanese healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27(5):442–8. Epub 2006/05/04. doi: 10.1086/504358 16671023.

74. Nienhaus A, Schablon A, Bacle CL, Siano B, Diel R. Evaluation of the interferon-gamma release assay in healthcare workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;81(3):295–300. Epub 2007/07/03. doi: 10.1007/s00420-007-0212-1 17605033.

75. Ozdemir D, Annakkaya AN, Tarhan G, Sencan I, Cesur S, Balbay O, et al. Comparison of the tuberculin skin test and the quantiferon test for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in health care workers in Turkey. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2007;60(2–3):102–5. Epub 2007/05/23. 17515641.

76. Pai M, Gokhale K, Joshi R, Dogra S, Kalantri S, Mendiratta DK, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers in rural India: comparison of a whole-blood interferon gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing. JAMA. 2005;293(22):2746–55. Epub 2005/06/09. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.22.2746 15941804.

77. Pai M, Joshi R, Dogra S, Mendiratta DK, Narang P, Kalantri S, et al. Serial testing of health care workers for tuberculosis using interferon-gamma assay. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174(3):349–55. Epub 2006/05/13. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200604-472OC 16690977; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2648116.

78. Pollock NR, Campos-Neto A, Kashino S, Napolitano D, Behar SM, Shin D, et al. Discordant QuantiFERON-TB Gold test results among US healthcare workers with increased risk of latent tuberculosis infection: a problem or solution? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(9):878–86. Epub 2008/08/21. doi: 10.1086/590262 18713053; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3578293.

79. Roth VR, Garrett DO, Laserson KF, Starling CE, Kritski AL, Medeiros EA, et al. A multicenter evaluation of tuberculin skin test positivity and conversion among health care workers in Brazilian hospitals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9(12):1335–42. Epub 2006/02/10. 16466055.

80. Tan LH, Kamarulzaman A, Liam CK, Lee TC. Tuberculin skin testing among healthcare workers in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23(10):584–90. Epub 2002/10/29. doi: 10.1086/501975 12400887.

81. Nolan CM. Isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection: approaching 40 and reaching its prime. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168(4):412–3. Epub 2003/08/13. doi: 10.1164/rccm.2306004 12912731.

82. Samandari T, Agizew TB, Nyirenda S, Tedla Z, Sibanda T, Shang N, et al. 6-month versus 36-month isoniazid preventive treatment for tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection in Botswana: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9777):1588–98. Epub 2011/04/16. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60204-3 21492926.

83. Pai M, O'Brien R. Serial testing for tuberculosis: can we make sense of T cell assay conversions and reversions? PLoS Med. 2007;4(6):e208. Epub 2007/06/15. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040208 17564491; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1891321.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11