The emotion regulation effect of cognitive control is related to depressive state through the mediation of rumination: An ERP study

Autoři: Shuzhen Gan aff001;  Shuang Chen aff002;  Xiangrong Shen aff003
Působiště autorů: Lab for Psychological Health and Imaging, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China aff001;  Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China aff002;  Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China aff003;  College of Humanities, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225285


Deficits in cognitive control have been found in depression, but how they contribute to depressive symptoms remains unknown. The present study investigated whether the regulatory efficacy of cognitive control on negative emotion varies with depression level and whether the regulatory efficacy affects depressive symptoms via the mediation of rumination. Fifty participants screened by the Zung Self-Rating Depressive Scale (SDS) with high and low depression levels were selected. They were instructed to controlled-process different semantic representations of aversive pictures, and the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) evoked by the pictures was used as the measure of electrocortical response. We found that controlled-processing neutral representations of aversive pictures significantly decreased the amplitude of LPP relative to that under controlled-processing unpleasant ones in an early window in the low depression group and that this regulatory effect was impaired in the high depression group. Furthermore, a mediation analyses indicated that the regulatory efficacy of controlled-processing different semantic representations was associated with SDS score via the mediation of rumination. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying the association between the function of cognitive control in emotion generation and depressive symptoms and indicated a pathway from the regulatory efficacy of cognitive control to depression via rumination.

Klíčová slova:

Attention – Cognition – Cognitive impairment – Depression – Electroencephalography – Emotions – Event-related potentials – Word recognition


1. Campbell-Sills L, Barlow DH. Incorporating emotion regulation into conceptualizations and treatments of anxiety and mood disorders. In: Gross JJ, editor. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007. pp. 542–559.

2. Garnefski N, Kraaij V. Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Pers Indiv Differ. 2006; 40: 1659–1669.

3. Dalgleish T, Watts FN. Biases of attention and memory in disorders of anxiety and depression. Clin Psychol Rev. 1990; 10: 589–604.

4. Matt GE, Vazquez C, Campbell WK. Mood-congruent recall of affectively toned stimuli: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 1992; 12: 227–255.

5. Hendricks MA, Buchanan TW. Individual differences in cognitive control processes and their relationship to emotion regulation. Cogn Emot. 2015; 30: 912–924. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2015.1032893 25947896

6. Joormann J, Tanovic E. Cognitive vulnerability to depression: Examining cognitive control and emotion regulation. Curr Opin Psychol. 2015; 4: 86–92.

7. Botvinick M, Braver T. Motivation and cognitive control: From behavior to neural mechanism. Annu Rev Psychol. 2015; 66: 83–113. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015044 25251491

8. Hofmann W, Schmeichel BJ, Baddeley AD. Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012; 16: 174–180. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.006 22336729

9. Zelazo PD, Cunningham W. Executive function mechanisms underlying emotion regulation. In: Gross JJ, editor. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007. pp.135–158.

10. Gross JJ, Thompson RA. Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In: Gross JJ, editor. Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007. pp. 3–26.

11. Owen AM, McMillan KM, Laird AR, Bullmore E. N-back working memory paradigm: A meta-analysis of normative functional neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Mapp. 2005; 25: 46–59. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20131 15846822

12. Buhle JT, Silvers JA, Wager TD, Lopez R, Onyemekwu C, Kober H, et al. Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: A meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex. 2014; 24: 2981–2990. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht154 23765157

13. Pe ML, Raes F, Koval P, Brans K, Verduyn P, Kuppens P. Interference resolution moderates the impact of rumination and reappraisal on affective experiences in daily life. Cogn Emot. 2013; 27: 492–501. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2012.719489 22966838

14. Thiruchselvam R, Hajcak G, Gross JJ. Looking inward: Shifting attention within working memory representations alters emotional response. Psychol Sci. 2012; 23: 1461–1466. doi: 10.1177/0956797612449838 23137969

15. Levens SM, Gotlib IH. Updating positive and negative stimuli in working memory in depression. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2010; 139: 654–664. doi: 10.1037/a0020283 21038984

16. Yoon KL, LeMoult J, Joormann J. Updating emotional content in working memory: A depression-specific deficit? J Behav Ther Exp Psy. 2014; 45: 368–374.

17. Koster EHW, Raedt RD, Goeleven E, Franck E, Crombez. Mood-congruent attentional bias in dysphoria: Maintained attention to and impaired disengagement from negative information. Emotion. 2005; 5: 446–455. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.4.446 16366748

18. Derakshan N, Salt M, Koster EHW. Attentional control in dysphoria: an investigation using the antisacccade task. Biol Psychol. 2009; 80: 251–255. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.09.005 18950676

19. Joormann J. Attentional bias in dysphoria: The role of inhibitory processes. Cogn emot. 2004; 18: 125–147.

20. Berman MG, Nee DE, Casement M, Kim HS, Deldin P, Kross E, et al. Neural and behavioral effects of interference resolution in depression and rumination. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2011; 11: 85–96. doi: 10.3758/s13415-010-0014-x 21264648

21. Maciejewski D, Brieant A, Lee J, King-Casas B, Kim-Spoon J. Neural cognitive control moderates the relation between negative life events and depressive symptoms in adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc. 2018; 00: 1–16.

22. Fowler C, Miernicki ME, Rudolph KD, Telzer EH. Disrupted amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during emotion regulation links stress-reactive rumination and adolescent depressive symptoms. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2017; 27: 99–106. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.002 28946039

23. Joormann J, Gotlib IH. Emotion regulation in depression: Relation to cognitive inhibition. Cogn emot. 2010; 24: 281–298. doi: 10.1080/02699930903407948 20300538

24. Owens M, Gibb B. Brooding rumination and attentional biases in currently non-depressed individuals: an eye-tracking study. Cogn Emot. 2016; 31: 1062–1069. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2016.1187116 27224305

25. Hong RY. Worry and rumination: Differential associations with anxious and depressive symptoms and coping behavior. Behav Res Ther. 2007; 45: 277–290. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.03.006 16635479

26. Nolen-Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. J Abnorm Psychol. 1991; 100: 569–582. doi: 10.1037//0021-843x.100.4.569 1757671

27. Nolen-Hoeksema S. The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. J Abnorm Psychol. 2000; 109: 504–511. 11016119

28. Zetsche U, Joormann J. Components of interference control predict depressive symptoms and rumination cross-sectionally and at six months follow-up. J Behav Ther Exp Psy. 2011; 42: 65–73.

29. Koster EH, De Lissnyder E, Derakshan N, De Raedt R. Understanding depressive rumination from a cognitive science perspective: The impaired disengagement hypothesis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010; 31: 138–145. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.08.005 20817334

30. DeJong H, Fox E, Stein A. Does rumination mediate the relationship between attention control and symptoms of depression? J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2019; 63: 28–35. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2018.12.007 30639915

31. Hsu KJ, Beard C, Rifkin L, Dillon DG, Pizzagalli DA, Bjorgvinsson T. Transdiagnostic mechanism in depression and anxiety: The role of rumination and attentional control. J Affect Disord. 2015; 188: 22–27. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.008 26340079

32. Hoorelbeke K, Koster E. International-delivered control training as a preventive intervention for remitted depressed patients: Evidence from a double-blind randomized controlled trial study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017; 85: 135–146. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000128 27362792

33. Cuthbert BN, Schupp HT, Bradley MM, Birbaumer N, Lang PJ. Brain potentials in affective picture processing: Covariation with autonomic arousal and affective report. Biol Psychol. 2000; 52: 95–111. doi: 10.1016/s0301-0511(99)00044-7 10699350

34. Schupp HT, Ohman A, Junghöfer M, Weike AI, Stockburger J, Hamm AO. The facilitated processing of threatening faces: An ERP analysis. Emotion. 2004a; 4: 189–200.

35. Schupp HT, Cuthbert BN, Bradley MM, Hillman CH, Hamm AO, Lang PJ. Brain processes in emotional perception: Motivated attention. Cogn Emot. 2004b; 18: 593–611.

36. Dolcos F, Cabeza R. Event-related potentials of emotional memory: Encoding pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2002; 2: 252–263. doi: 10.3758/cabn.2.3.252 12775189

37. Polich J. Updating P300: An integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007; 118: 2128–2148. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2007.04.019 17573239

38. Hajcak G, Dunning JP, Foti D. Motivated and controlled attention to emotion: Time-course of the late positive potential. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009; 120: 505–510. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2008.11.028 19157974

39. Nieuwenhuis S, Hajcak G. Reappraisal modulates the electrocortical response to unpleasant pictures. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2006; 6: 291–297. doi: 10.3758/cabn.6.4.291 17458444

40. Zhang M. Handbook of Rating Scales in Psychiatry. 1st ed. Changsha: Hunan Science &Technology Press; 1993.

41. Zung WWK. How normal is depression? Psychosomatics. 1972; 13: 174–178. doi: 10.1016/S0033-3182(72)71431-0 4671918

42. Treynor W, Gonzalez R, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognit Ther Res. 2003; 27: 247–259.

43. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN. International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-6. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 2005.

44. Semlitsch HV, Anderer P, Schuster P, Presslich O. A solution for reliable and valid reduction of ocular artifacts, applied to the P300 ERP. Psychophysiology. 1986; 23: 695–703. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1986.tb00696.x 3823345

45. Hajcak G, MacNamara A, Olvet DM. Event-related potentials, emotion, and emotion regulation: An integrative review. Dev Neuropsychol. 2010; 35: 129–155. doi: 10.1080/87565640903526504 20390599

46. Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression‐based approach. New York: The Guilford Press; 2013.

47. Ochsner KN, Silvers JA, Buhle JT. Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: A synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012; 1251: E1–E24. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06751.x 23025352

48. Yeung RC, Fernandes MA. Social anxiety enhances recognition of task-irrelevant threat words. Acta Psychologica. 2019; 194: 69–76. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2019.01.015 30779989

49. Verstraeten K, Vasey MW, Raes F, Bijttebier P. Temperament and risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediation by rumination and moderation by effortful control. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2009; 37: 349–361. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9293-x 19107592

50. Goldin PR, McRae KM, Ramel W, Gross JJ. The neural bases of emotion regulation: Reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion. Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 63: 577–586. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.05.031 17888411

51. Luks TL, Simpson GV, Feiwell RJ, Miller WL. Evidence for anterior cingulate cortex involvement in monitoring preparatory attentional set. Neuroimage. 2002; 17: 792–802. 12377154

52. Smith EE, Jonides J. Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science. 1999; 283: 1657–1661. doi: 10.1126/science.283.5408.1657 10073923

53. Drevets W, Price JL, Furey ML. Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: Implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain Struct Funct. 2008; 213: 93–118. doi: 10.1007/s00429-008-0189-x 18704495

54. Kayser J, Bruder GE, Tenke CE, Stewart JW, Quitkin FM. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to hemifield presentations of emotional stimuli: differences between depressed patients and healthy adults in P3 amplitude and asymmetry. Int J Psychophysiol. 2000; 36: 211–236. doi: 10.1016/s0167-8760(00)00078-7 10754195

55. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Schweizer S. Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010; 30: 217–37. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004 20015584

56. Liverant GI, Brown TA, Barlow DH, Roemer L. Emotion regulation in unipolar depression: the effects of acceptance and suppression of subjective emotional experience on the intensity and duration of sadness and negative affect. Behav Res Ther. 2008; 46: 1201–1209. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.08.001 18828992

57. Lyche P, Jonassen R, Stiles TC, Ulleberg P, Landro NI. Cognitive control functions in unipolar major depression with and without co-morbid anxiety disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2010; 1: 149. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2010.00149 21423456

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 11