Non-communicable diseases risk factors and their determinants: A cross-sectional state-wide STEPS survey, Haryana, North India

Autoři: JS Thakur aff001;  Gursimer Jeet aff001;  Ria Nangia aff001;  Divya Singh aff001;  Sandeep Grover aff002;  Tanica Lyngdoh aff003;  Arnab Pal aff004;  Ramesh Verma aff005;  Ramnika Aggarwal aff006;  Mohd. Haroon Khan aff007;  Rajiv Saran aff008;  Sanjay Jain aff009;  K. L. Gupta aff010;  Vivek Kumar aff010
Působiště autorů: Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Heath, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India aff001;  Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India aff002;  Indian Institute of Public Health Association, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India aff003;  Department of Biochemistry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India aff004;  Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, India aff005;  Department of Community Medicine, Kalpana Chawla Medical College, Karnal, India aff006;  Department of Community Medicine, Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Government Medical College, Mewat, India aff007;  Department of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America aff008;  Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India aff009;  Department of Nephrology, Post Graduate of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India aff010
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208872



Recent studies have documented high variation in epidemiologic transition levels among Indian states with noncommunicable disease epidemic rising swiftly. However, the estimates suffer from non-availability of reliable data for NCDs from sub populations. In order to fill the knowledge gap, the distribution and determinants of NCD risk factors were studied along with awareness, treatment and control of NCDs among the adult population in Haryana, India.


NCD risk factors survey was conducted among 5078 residents, aged 18–69 years during 2016–17. Behavioural risk factors were assessed using STEPS instrument, administered through an android software (mSTEPS). This was followed by physical measurements using standard protocols. Finally, biological risk factors were determined through the analysis of serum and urine samples.


Males were found to be consuming tobacco and alcohol at higher rates of 38.9% (95% CI: 35.3–42.4) and 18.8% (95% CI: 15.8–21.8). One- tenth (11%) (95% CI: 8.6–13.4) of the respondents did not meet the specified WHO recommendations for physical activity for health. Around 35.2% (95%CI: 32.6–37.7) were overweight or obese. Hypertension and diabetes were prevalent at 26.2% (95% CI: 24.6–27.8) and 15.5% (95% CI: 11.0–20.0). 91.3% (95% CI: 89.3–93.3) of the population had higher salt intake than recommended 5gms per day.


The documentation of strikingly high and uniform distribution of different NCDs and their risk factors in state warrants urgent need for evidence based interventions and advocacy of policy measures.

Klíčová slova:

Age groups – Alcohol consumption – Medical risk factors – Obesity – Physical activity – Surveys – Urban areas


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