Synergistic immuno-modulatory activity in human macrophages of a medicinal mushroom formulation consisting of Reishi, Shiitake and Maitake

Autoři: Brody Mallard aff001;  David N. Leach aff002;  Hans Wohlmuth aff002;  Joe Tiralongo aff001
Působiště autorů: Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia aff001;  Integria Healthcare, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Australia aff002;  National Institute of Complementary Medicine, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia aff003;  School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224740


A key characteristic of mushroom polysaccharides that elicit an immunomodulatory response is that they are rich in β-glucans and low in α-glucans. In this study we analysed nine commercially available preparations from three mushroom species, Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and Maitake (Grifola frondosa), for β- and α-glucan content. Based on β- and α-glucan content we selected three extracts to combine into a formula and evaluated the ability of the individual extracts and formula to impact on the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in human macrophages with and without LPS stimulation. The majority of mushroom extracts and the formula were found to be highly potent immuno-stimulators possessing EC50 values lower than 100 μg/mL. Interestingly the mushroom formula had lower EC50 values in TNF-α expression from LPS stimulated macrophages compared to the individual extracts, suggesting a potential synergistic effect of the mushroom formula. A response additivity graph and curve-shift analysis illustrated that indeed the mushroom formula exhibited an immuno-stimulatory synergistic effect on the expression of the majority of cytokines evaluated in both LPS stimulated and non-stimulated human macrophages, with IL-10 having an antagonistic response. This study represents the first report of a synergistic immuno-modulatory response in human macrophages elicited from a mushroom formula rationally derived from β- and α-glucan content.

Klíčová slova:

Blood – Cytokines – Glucans – Immune response – Macrophages – Mycelium – Pattern recognition receptors – Polysaccharides


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2019 Číslo 11