Fatty acid profile of Romanian’s common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lipid fractions and their complexation ability by β-cyclodextrin


Autoři: Ioan David aff001;  Manuela D. Orboi aff002;  Marius D. Simandi aff001;  Cosmina A. Chirilă aff001;  Corina I. Megyesi aff001;  Laura Rădulescu aff001;  Lavinia P. Drăghia aff003;  Alexandra T. Lukinich-Gruia aff003;  Cornelia Muntean aff004;  Daniel I. Hădărugă aff006;  Nicoleta G. Hădărugă aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Food Science, Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff001;  Department of Economics and Company Financing, Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff002;  Centre for Gene and Cellular Therapies in the Treatment of Cancer–OncoGen, Clinical County Hospital of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff003;  Department of Applied Chemistry and Engineering of Inorganic Compounds and Environment, Polytechnic University of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff004;  Research Institute for Renewable Energy, Polytechnic University of Timişoara, Timișoara, Romania aff005;  Department of Applied Chemistry, Organic and Natural Compounds Engineering, Polytechnic University of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225474

Souhrn

The goal of the present study was the evaluation of the fatty acid (FA) profile of lipid fraction from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (CBO) harvested from North-East (NE) and South-West (SW) of Romania and to protect against thermal and oxidative degradation of the contained omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) glycerides by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) nanoencapsulation, using kneading method. The most abundant FAs in the CBO samples were PUFAs, according to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Linoleic acid (methyl ester) was the main constituent, having relative concentrations of 43.4 (±1.95) % and 35.23 (±0.68) % for the lipid fractions separated from the common beans harvested from the NE and SW of Romania, respectively. Higher relative concentrations were obtained for the omega-3 α-linolenic acid methyl ester at values of 13.13 (±0.59) % and 15.72 (±0.30) % for NE and SW Romanian samples, respectively. The omega-3/omega-6 ratio consistently exceeds the lower limit value of 0.2, from where the PUFA glyceride mixture is valuable for the human health. This value was 0.32 (±0.02) for the NE samples and significantly higher for the CBO-SW samples, 0.51 (±0.01). These highly hydrophobic mixtures especially consisting of PUFA triglycerides provide β-CD complexes having higher thermal and oxidative stability. Kneading method allowed obtaining β-CD/CBO powder-like complexes with higher recovery yields of >70%. Thermal analyses of complexes revealed a lower content of hydration water (3.3–5.8% up to 110°C in thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and 154–347 J/g endothermal effect in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis) in comparison with the β-CD hydrate (12.1% and 479.5–480 J/g, respectively). These findings support the molecular inclusion process of FA moieties into the β-CD cavity. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis reveals the formation of the β-CD/CBO inclusion complexes by restricting the vibration and bending of some bonds from the host and guest molecules. Moreover, powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) analysis confirm the formation of the host-guest complexes by modifying the diffractograms for β-CD/CBO complexes in comparison with the β-CD and β-CD + CBO physical mixtures. A significant reduction of the level of crystallinity from 93.3 (±5.3) % for β-CD to 60–60.9% for the corresponding β-CD/CBO complexes have been determined. The encapsulation efficiency (EE), the profile of FAs, as well as the controlled release of the encapsulated oil have also been evaluated. The EE was >40% in all cases, the highest value being obtained for β-CD/CBO-SW complex. The SFA content increased, while the unsaturated FA glycerides had lower relative concentrations in the encapsulated CBO samples. It can be emphasized that the main omega-3 FA (namely α-linolenic acid glycerides) had close concentrations in the encapsulated and raw CBOs (13.13 (±0.59) % and 14.04 (±1.54) % for non-encapsulated and encapsulated CBO-NE samples, 15.72 (±0.30) % and 12.41 (±1.95) % for the corresponding CBO-SW samples, respectively). The overall unsaturated FA content significantly decreased after complexation (from 19.03–19.16% for the raw CBOs to 17.3–17.7% for encapsulated oils in the case of MUFAs, and from 55.7–58.8% to 35.13–43.36% for PUFAs). On the other hand, the omega-3/omega-6 ratio increased by β-CD nanoencapsulation to 0.51 (±0.07) and 0.76 (0.26) for β-CD/CBO-NE and β-CD/CBO-SW complexes, respectively. As a conclusion, the lipid fractions of the Romanian common beans are good candidates for β-CD complexation and they can be protected against thermal and oxidative degradation in common beans based food products such as functional foods or food supplements using natural CDs.

Klíčová slova:

Esters – Fatty acids – Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry – Lipids – Oils – Vibration – Glycerides – Hydrates


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