Fatty acid profile of Romanian’s common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lipid fractions and their complexation ability by β-cyclodextrin

Autoři: Ioan David aff001;  Manuela D. Orboi aff002;  Marius D. Simandi aff001;  Cosmina A. Chirilă aff001;  Corina I. Megyesi aff001;  Laura Rădulescu aff001;  Lavinia P. Drăghia aff003;  Alexandra T. Lukinich-Gruia aff003;  Cornelia Muntean aff004;  Daniel I. Hădărugă aff006;  Nicoleta G. Hădărugă aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Food Science, Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff001;  Department of Economics and Company Financing, Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff002;  Centre for Gene and Cellular Therapies in the Treatment of Cancer–OncoGen, Clinical County Hospital of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff003;  Department of Applied Chemistry and Engineering of Inorganic Compounds and Environment, Polytechnic University of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff004;  Research Institute for Renewable Energy, Polytechnic University of Timişoara, Timișoara, Romania aff005;  Department of Applied Chemistry, Organic and Natural Compounds Engineering, Polytechnic University of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225474


The goal of the present study was the evaluation of the fatty acid (FA) profile of lipid fraction from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (CBO) harvested from North-East (NE) and South-West (SW) of Romania and to protect against thermal and oxidative degradation of the contained omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) glycerides by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) nanoencapsulation, using kneading method. The most abundant FAs in the CBO samples were PUFAs, according to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Linoleic acid (methyl ester) was the main constituent, having relative concentrations of 43.4 (±1.95) % and 35.23 (±0.68) % for the lipid fractions separated from the common beans harvested from the NE and SW of Romania, respectively. Higher relative concentrations were obtained for the omega-3 α-linolenic acid methyl ester at values of 13.13 (±0.59) % and 15.72 (±0.30) % for NE and SW Romanian samples, respectively. The omega-3/omega-6 ratio consistently exceeds the lower limit value of 0.2, from where the PUFA glyceride mixture is valuable for the human health. This value was 0.32 (±0.02) for the NE samples and significantly higher for the CBO-SW samples, 0.51 (±0.01). These highly hydrophobic mixtures especially consisting of PUFA triglycerides provide β-CD complexes having higher thermal and oxidative stability. Kneading method allowed obtaining β-CD/CBO powder-like complexes with higher recovery yields of >70%. Thermal analyses of complexes revealed a lower content of hydration water (3.3–5.8% up to 110°C in thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and 154–347 J/g endothermal effect in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis) in comparison with the β-CD hydrate (12.1% and 479.5–480 J/g, respectively). These findings support the molecular inclusion process of FA moieties into the β-CD cavity. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis reveals the formation of the β-CD/CBO inclusion complexes by restricting the vibration and bending of some bonds from the host and guest molecules. Moreover, powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) analysis confirm the formation of the host-guest complexes by modifying the diffractograms for β-CD/CBO complexes in comparison with the β-CD and β-CD + CBO physical mixtures. A significant reduction of the level of crystallinity from 93.3 (±5.3) % for β-CD to 60–60.9% for the corresponding β-CD/CBO complexes have been determined. The encapsulation efficiency (EE), the profile of FAs, as well as the controlled release of the encapsulated oil have also been evaluated. The EE was >40% in all cases, the highest value being obtained for β-CD/CBO-SW complex. The SFA content increased, while the unsaturated FA glycerides had lower relative concentrations in the encapsulated CBO samples. It can be emphasized that the main omega-3 FA (namely α-linolenic acid glycerides) had close concentrations in the encapsulated and raw CBOs (13.13 (±0.59) % and 14.04 (±1.54) % for non-encapsulated and encapsulated CBO-NE samples, 15.72 (±0.30) % and 12.41 (±1.95) % for the corresponding CBO-SW samples, respectively). The overall unsaturated FA content significantly decreased after complexation (from 19.03–19.16% for the raw CBOs to 17.3–17.7% for encapsulated oils in the case of MUFAs, and from 55.7–58.8% to 35.13–43.36% for PUFAs). On the other hand, the omega-3/omega-6 ratio increased by β-CD nanoencapsulation to 0.51 (±0.07) and 0.76 (0.26) for β-CD/CBO-NE and β-CD/CBO-SW complexes, respectively. As a conclusion, the lipid fractions of the Romanian common beans are good candidates for β-CD complexation and they can be protected against thermal and oxidative degradation in common beans based food products such as functional foods or food supplements using natural CDs.

Klíčová slova:

Esters – Fatty acids – Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry – Lipids – Oils – Vibration – Glycerides – Hydrates


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