Ethnic-racial identity affirmation: Validation in Aboriginal Australian children


Autoři: Davi Manzini Macedo aff001;  Pedro Ribeiro Santiago aff001;  Rachel M. Roberts aff002;  Lisa G. Smithers aff003;  Yin Paradies aff004;  Lisa M. Jamieson aff001
Působiště autorů: Indigenous Oral Health Unit, Adelaide Dental School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia aff001;  School of Psychology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia aff002;  BetterStart Child Health and Development Research Group, School of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia aff003;  Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224736

Souhrn

Introduction

Positive attitudes towards ethnic-racial identity (ERI) is a key factor in Aboriginal Australian children’s development. The present study aims to offer evidence of construct and criterion validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of a brief measure of Aboriginal children’s ERI affirmation.

Methods

Data was from 424 children aged 10–12 years (mean 10.5 years; SD 0.56) participating in the 8th wave of the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC). Information on ERI was obtained from 4 child-reported items. Sociodemographic characteristics and child social and emotional outcomes were caregiver-reported. A factorial structure was tested by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The estimation method was weighted least squares with mean and variance adjusted test statistic (WLSMV). For reliability verification, the ordinal α and Ω hierarchical α were assessed. For construct validity, a generalized linear model with log-Poisson link estimated the association between ERI and children’s social and emotional outcomes. We hypothesized that children with positive ERI would have lower behavioural and emotional difficulties.

Results

We found evidence of excellent fit for a unidimensional model of ERI affirmation after adjusting for correlated uniqueness between items 1 and 3 (χ2(2) = 0.06, p = 0.80; RMSEA = 0.000 [90% CI 0.000–0.080], p = 0.088; CFI = 1.000). Internal consistency reliability was considered adequate (ordinal α = 0.83; Ω hierarchical α = 0.72). The unidimensional model was shown to be invariant among boys and girls (Δχ2 (4) = 6.20, p = 0.18; ΔCFI = 0.000). Higher ERI was associated with lower risk of problematic scores (>17) on the SDQ (Risk Ratioa = 0.91, 95% CI 0.64, 1.29).

Discussion

The four LSIC items perform as a brief measure of Aboriginal children ERI affirmation among boys and girls. Results contribute much needed evidence for LSIC’s ongoing success and to future research on Aboriginal children’s development and wellbeing.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Culture – Emotions – Children – Psychometrics – Research validity – Indigenous Australian people – Generalized linear model


Zdroje

1. Schwartz SJ, Syed M, Yip T, Knight GP, Umana-Taylor AJ, Rivas-Drake D, et al. Methodological issues in ethnic and racial identity research with ethnic minority populations: theoretical precision, measurement issues, and research designs. Child Dev. 2014;85(1):58–76. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12201 24490892

2. Corenblum B. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children. J Youth Adolesc. 2014;43(3):356–74. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-0007-5 23982921

3. Serrano-Villar M, Calzada EJ. Ethnic identity: evidence of protective effects for young, Latino children. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2016;42:21–30. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2015.11.002 26778873

4. Derlan CL, Umana-Taylor AJ, Updegraff KA, Jahromi LB. Longitudinal relations among Mexican-origin mothers' cultural characteristics, cultural socialization, and 5-year-old children's ethnic-racial identification. Dev Psychol. 2017;53(11):2078–91. doi: 10.1037/dev0000386 29094971

5. Corenblum B. Relationships between racial-ethnic identity, self-esteem and in-group attitudes among First Nation children. J Youth Adolesc. 2014;43(3):387–404. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-0081-8 24343260

6. Marcelo AK, Yates TM. Young children's ethnic-racial identity moderates the impact of early discrimination experiences on child behavior problems. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2019;25(2):253–65. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000220 30058832

7. Romero AJ, Edwards LM, Fryberg SA, Orduña M. Resilience to discrimination stress across ethnic identity stages of development. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2014;44(1):1–11. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12192

8. Umaña-Taylor AJ, Yazedjian A, Bámaca-Gómez M. Developing the Ethnic Identity Scale using Eriksonian and Social Identity perspectives. Identity. 2004;4(1):9–38. doi: 10.1207/s1532706xid0401_2

9. Tajfel H, C. Turner J. The Social Identity Theory of intergroup behavior. In: Worchel S, Austin WG, editors. Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall; 1986. pp. 7–24.

10. Ashmore RD, Kay D, McLaughlin-Volpe T. An organizing framework for collective identity: articulation and significance of multidimensionality. Psychol Bull. 2004;130(1):80–114. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.130.1.80 14717651

11. Australia Institute of Health and Welfare. The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Istrait Islander peoples 2015. Canberra: Australia Institute of Health and Welfare; 2015. 200 p. Report No. IHW 147

12. Australian Bureau of Statistics [Internet]. Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians [cited 2019 September 25]. Available from: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3238.0.55.001.

13. Zubrick SR, Shepherd C, Dudgeon P, Gee G, Paradies Y, Scrine C, et al. Social determinants of social and emotional wellbeing for Aboriginal Australians. In: Dudgeon P, Milroy H, Walker R, editors. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice. Canberra: Australian Government, Department of The Prime Minister and Cabinet; 2014. pp. 93–112.

14. Priest N, Thompson L, Mackean T, Baker A, Waters E. 'Yarning up with Koori kids'—hearing the voices of Australian urban Indigenous children about their health and well-being. Ethn Health. 2017;22(6):631–47. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2016.1246418 27764969

15. Priest N, Paradies Y, Stewart P, Luke J. Racism and health among urban Aboriginal young people. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(568):1–9. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-568 21756369

16. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent and youth health and wellbeing. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2018. 38 p. Report No. IHW 198.

17. Tonkinson R. Australian Aboriginal society and culture: an overview. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed: Elsevier; 2015. p. 234–8.

18. Priest N, Mackean T, Davis E, Briggs L, Waters E. Aboriginal perspectives of child health and wellbeing in an urban setting: developing a conceptual framework. Health Soc Rev. 2014;21(2):180–95. doi: 10.5172/hesr.2012.21.2.180

19. Thurber KA, Banks E, Banwell C, Team L. Cohort profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44(3):789–800. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu122 25011454

20. Footprints in Time: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children—Data user guide, Release 9.0. Department of Social Services, 2018.

21. Gessaroli ME, Champlain AF. Test Dimensionality: Assessment of. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.

22. Gardner PL. Measuring attitudes to science: Unidimensionality and internal consistency revisited. Res Sci Educ. 1995;25(3):283–9.

23. Footprints in Time—The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children [Internet]. Department of Social Services; 2019 [2019 May 14]. Available from: https://www.dss.gov.au/about-the-department/publications-articles/research-publications/longitudinal-data-initiatives/footprints-in-time-the-longitudinal-study-of-indigenous-children-lsic#1.

24. Payments and support for Indigenous Australians [Internet]. Australian Government Department of Human Services; 2019 [14 May 2019]. Available from: https://www.humanservices.gov.au/individuals/subjects/payments-and-support-for-indigenous-australians.

25. Medicare services for Indigenous Australians [Internet]. Department of Human Services; 2019 [14 May 2019]. Available from: https://www.humanservices.gov.au/individuals/subjects/whats-covered-medicare/medicare-services-indigenous-australians.

26. Craven RG, Alex Y, Munns G, Bodkin-Andrews G, Nida D, O'Rourke V. Seeding success for Aboriginal primary students. Centre for Positive Psychology and Education and NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group, 2016.

27. Zubrick SR, Lawrence DM, Silburn SR, Blair E, Milroy H, Wilkes T, et al. The Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Study: the health of Aboriginal children and young people. Perth: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, 2004.

28. Biddle N. Ranking regions: revisiting an Index of Relative Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, 2009.

29. Goodman R. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1997;38:581–6. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x 9255702

30. Williamson A, McElduff P, Dadds M, D'Este C, Redman S, Raphael B, et al. The construct validity of the S trengths and D ifficulties Questionnaire for A boriginal children living in urban New South Wales, Australia. Aust Psychol. 2014;49(3):163–70. doi: 10.1111/ap.12045

31. Asparouhov T, Muthén B. Simple second order chi-square correction. Mplus technical appendix. 2010.

32. Beauducel A, Herzberg PY. On the performance of Maximum Likelihood versus Means and Variance Adjusted Weighted Least Squares Estimation in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 2006;13(2):186–203. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1302_2

33. Muthén B, du Toit S, Spisic D. Robust inference using weighted least squares and quadratic estimating equations in latent variable modeling with categorical and continuous outcomes. 1997.

34. Asparouhov T, Muthén B. Weighted least squares estimation with missing data. Mplus Technical Appendix. 2010;2010:1–10.

35. Moshagen M, Musch J. Sample size requirements of the robust weighted least squares estimator. Meth Eur J Res Meth Behav Soc Sci. 2014;10(2):60–70. doi: 10.1027/1614-2241/a000068

36. Jackson DL. Revisiting sample size and number of parameter estimates: Some support for the n:q hypothesis. Struct Equ modeling. 2003;10(1):128–41. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1001_6

37. Y Yu C. Evaluating cutoff criteria of model fit indices for latent variable models with binary and continuous outcomes. Los Angeles: University of California; 2002.

38. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford publications; 2015.

39. Hayduk LA, Pazderka-Robinson H, Cummings GG, Levers M-JD, Beres MA. Structural equation model testing and the quality of natural killer cell activity measurements. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2005;5(1):1.

40. Saris WE, Satorra A, Van der Veld WM. Testing structural equation models or detection of misspecifications? Structural Equation Modeling. 2009;16(4):561–82.

41. Lohoar S, Butera N, Kennedy E. Strength of Australian Aboriginal cultural practices in family life and child rearing. Canberra: Australian Institute of Families Studies. 2014. 20p. Paper No. 25.

42. Rogers LO, Meltzoff AN. Is gender more important and meaningful than race? An analysis of racial and gender identity among Black, White, and mixed-race children. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2017;23(3):323–34. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000125 27736104

43. Satorra A. Scaled and adjusted restricted tests in multi-sample analysis of moment structures. Innovations in multivariate statistical analysis: Springer; 2000. pp. 233–47.

44. Meade A, C Johnson E, Braddy P. Power and sensitivity of alternative fit indices in tests of measurement invariance. J Appl Psychol. 2008;93(3):568–92. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.568 18457487

45. Zumbo BD, Gadermann AM, Zeisser C. Ordinal versions of coefficients alpha and theta for Likert rating scales. Journal of modern applied statistical methods. 2007;6(1):4.

46. Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 1951;16(3):297–334.

47. Wells CS, Wollack JA. An instructor’s guide to understanding test reliability. Testing & Evaluation Services University of Wisconsin. 2003.

48. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. 2013.

49. Rosseel Y. Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling and more. Version 0.5–12 (BETA). Journal of statistical software. 2012;48(2):1–36.

50. Jorgensen T, Pornprasertmanit S, Schoemann A, Rosseel Y. semTools: Useful tools for structural equation modeling. R Package Version 0.5–1. 2018.

51. Priest N, Paradies Y, Trenerry B, Truong M, Karlsen S, Kelly Y. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people. Soc Sci Med. 2013;95:115–27. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.031 23312306

52. Fahrmeir L, Tutz G. Modelling and analysis of cross-sectional data: a review of univariate. Multivariate statistical modelling based on generalized linear models. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag New York; 2001. pp. 15–68.

53. Chen W, Qian L, Shi J, Franklin M. Comparing performance between log-binomial and robust Poisson regression models for estimating risk ratios under model misspecification. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18(1):63. doi: 10.1186/s12874-018-0519-5 29929477

54. Meltzer H, Gatward R, Goodman R, Ford T. Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2003;15(1–2):185–7. doi: 10.1080/0954026021000046155 12745331

55. Shepherd C, Li J, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR. Socioeconomic disparities in the mental health of Indigenous children in Western Australia. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:756. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-756 22958495

56. Cooper SM, Banerjee M, Griffin CB, Glover CS, Shaheed J, McBride M, et al. African American fathers’ race-related discussions with their children: Associations with racial identity beliefs and sociodemographic factors. J Child Fam Stud. 2019;28(10):2800–12. doi: 10.1007/s10826-019-01460-2

57. Dunn TJ, Baguley T, Brunsden V. From alpha to omega: a practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. Br J Psychol. 2014;105(3):399–412. doi: 10.1111/bjop.12046 24844115

58. Snowshoe A, Crooks C, F. Tremblay P, E. Hinson R. Cultural connectedness and its relation to mental wellness for First Nations youth. J Prim Prev. 2017;38:67–86. doi: 10.1007/s10935-016-0454-3 27807659

59. Smokowski PR, Evans CB, Cotter KL, Webber KC. Ethnic identity and mental health in American Indian youth: examining mediation pathways through self-esteem, and future optimism. J Youth Adolesc. 2014;43(3):343–55. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-9992-7 23929530

60. Williams AD, Clark TC, Lewycka S. The associations between cultural identity and mental health outcomes for Indigenous Maori youth in New Zealand. Front Public Health. 2018;6:319. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00319 30483490

61. MacCallum RC, Roznowski M, Necowitz LB. Model modifications in covariance structure analysis: The problem of capitalization on chance. Psychol Bull. 1992;111(3):490. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.111.3.490 16250105

62. Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford Publications; 2014.

63. Brascoupé S, Waters C. Cultural Safety: exploring the applicability of the concept of cultural safety to Aboriginal health and community wellness. Journal of Aboriginal Health. 2009;5(2):6–41. doi: doi.org/10.3138/ijih.v5i2.28981

64. Rigby W, Duffy E, Manners J, Latham H, Lyons L, Crawford L, et al. Closing the gap: cultural safety in Indigenous health education. Contemp Nurse. 2010;37(1):21–30. doi: 10.5172/conu.2011.37.1.021 21591823

65. Bodkin-Andrews G, O'Rourke V, Grant R, Denson N, Craven RG. Validating racism and cultural respect: testing the psychometric properties and educational impact of perceived discrimination and multiculturation for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. Educational Research and Evaluation. 2011;16(6):471–93. doi: 10.1080/13803611.2010.550497

66. Kickett-Tucker CS, Christensen D, Lawrence D, Zubrick SR, Johnson DJ, Stanley F. Development and validation of the Australian Aboriginal racial identity and self-esteem survey for 8–12 year old children (IRISE_C). Int J Equity Health. 2015;14:103. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0234-3 26499852

67. Umana-Taylor AJ, Quintana SM, Lee RM, Cross WE Jr., Rivas-Drake D, Schwartz SJ, et al. Ethnic and racial identity during adolescence and into young adulthood: an integrated conceptualization. Child Dev. 2014;85(1):21–39. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12196 24490890

68. Phinney JS. Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: review of research. Psychol Bull. 1990;108(3):499–514. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499 2270238

69. Hughes DL, Watford JA, Del Toro J. A transactional/ecological perspective on ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. In: SS H, MD H, LS L, editors. Equity and justice in developmental science: implications for young people, families, and communities: Academic Press; 2016. pp. 1–41.

70. Macedo DM, Smithers LG, Roberts RM, Haag DG, Paradies Y, Jamieson LM. Does ethnic-racial identity modify the effects of racism on the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal Australian children? PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0220744. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220744 31390371

71. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Strategies and practices for promoting the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2013. 15 p. Report No. IHW 82.

72. Zamora AL, Curtis H, Lancaster L. Promoting racial and ethnic identity: A school-based intervention to support Latino youth. Journal of Latinos and Education. 2017;18(3):215–27. doi: 10.1080/15348431.2017.1386104

73. Umana-Taylor AJ, Kornienko O, Douglass Bayless S, Updegraff KA. A universal intervention program increases ethnic-racial identity exploration and resolution to predict adolescent psychosocial functioning one year later. J Youth Adolesc. 2018;47(1):1–15. doi: 10.1007/s10964-017-0766-5 29030792


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11