Ethnic-racial identity affirmation: Validation in Aboriginal Australian children

Autoři: Davi Manzini Macedo aff001;  Pedro Ribeiro Santiago aff001;  Rachel M. Roberts aff002;  Lisa G. Smithers aff003;  Yin Paradies aff004;  Lisa M. Jamieson aff001
Působiště autorů: Indigenous Oral Health Unit, Adelaide Dental School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia aff001;  School of Psychology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia aff002;  BetterStart Child Health and Development Research Group, School of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia aff003;  Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224736



Positive attitudes towards ethnic-racial identity (ERI) is a key factor in Aboriginal Australian children’s development. The present study aims to offer evidence of construct and criterion validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of a brief measure of Aboriginal children’s ERI affirmation.


Data was from 424 children aged 10–12 years (mean 10.5 years; SD 0.56) participating in the 8th wave of the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC). Information on ERI was obtained from 4 child-reported items. Sociodemographic characteristics and child social and emotional outcomes were caregiver-reported. A factorial structure was tested by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The estimation method was weighted least squares with mean and variance adjusted test statistic (WLSMV). For reliability verification, the ordinal α and Ω hierarchical α were assessed. For construct validity, a generalized linear model with log-Poisson link estimated the association between ERI and children’s social and emotional outcomes. We hypothesized that children with positive ERI would have lower behavioural and emotional difficulties.


We found evidence of excellent fit for a unidimensional model of ERI affirmation after adjusting for correlated uniqueness between items 1 and 3 (χ2(2) = 0.06, p = 0.80; RMSEA = 0.000 [90% CI 0.000–0.080], p = 0.088; CFI = 1.000). Internal consistency reliability was considered adequate (ordinal α = 0.83; Ω hierarchical α = 0.72). The unidimensional model was shown to be invariant among boys and girls (Δχ2 (4) = 6.20, p = 0.18; ΔCFI = 0.000). Higher ERI was associated with lower risk of problematic scores (>17) on the SDQ (Risk Ratioa = 0.91, 95% CI 0.64, 1.29).


The four LSIC items perform as a brief measure of Aboriginal children ERI affirmation among boys and girls. Results contribute much needed evidence for LSIC’s ongoing success and to future research on Aboriginal children’s development and wellbeing.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Culture – Emotions – Children – Psychometrics – Research validity – Indigenous Australian people – Generalized linear model


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